Man Steals Samurai Sword From History Museum and Launches Attack Outside Taiwan Presidential Office

Man Steals Samurai Sword From History Museum and Launches Attack Outside Taiwan Presidential Office


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A Taiwanese man stole an antique samurai sword inscribed with the words “Nanjing battle, (this sword) killed 107 people” and used it to try to break into the Presidential Office, injuring a military police guard in the process.

Channelnewsasia reports that the man broke into a local history museum, smashed the display case holding the samurai sword with a hammer and then attempted to break his way into the presidential office in the center of Taipei. Carrying a Chinese flag and the samurai sword, he slashed a military police guard across the neck before being apprehended by police. The guard was rushed to hospital but is now in a stable condition.

Authorities say the samurai sword-wielding attacker, known only as Lu, had wanted to send a political message by flying the Chinese flag there. Taiwan is a self-ruling democracy, but China still sees it as part of its territory and Lu wanted to express his discontent with Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen, who has refuted China’s claim to Taiwan.

The assailant was taken away by officers after the attack. (Photo: Focus Taiwan/Twitter)

Samurai Sword Carries Morbid Inscription with Death Count

The samurai sword that was stolen and used in the attack is inscribed with the words "Nanjing battle, (this sword) killed 107 people". The sword had been used by the Japanese military in the massacre of residents of the Chinese city of Nanjing in 1937.

The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the National Revolutionary Army of China and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republic of China. Following the capture of the city, Japanese soldiers massacred Chinese prisoners of war, murdered civilians, and committed acts of looting and rape in an event known as the Nanking Massacre. It is estimated that over 200,000 Chinese were killed in the incident.

The most notorious atrocity was a killing contest between two Japanese officers, which involved a race to see who could kill 100 people first using only a samurai sword. The event was covered much like a sporting competition with regular updates on the score over a series of days.

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Sword used in the "contest" on display at the Republic of China Armed Forces Museum in Taipei, Taiwan ( public domain)

Japanese Samurais

The samurai class emerged around the 8th century. Up until that time, Japan’s imperial army was made up of conscripted peasants. This did not produce an effective military force. Separatists and independent tribes threatened the stability of the Empire as well as the safety of ordinary people. Unable to rely on the state military for protection, anyone with the means to do so (i.e. land owners and provincial lords) hired their own soldiers. “These forces, formed by provincial clan leaders, were basically private protection societies, miniature armies, adept at equestrian skirmishes. And although competitive with one another, they quickly saw the wisdom of forging strength-in numbers bonds” (Cotter, 2013). The word ‘samurai’ comes from an old Japanese verb ‘to serve.’ Over time, the authority of the Emperor waned and the power of the armed elite grew. By the 12th century, samurai working for shoguns were the ruling class of Japan.

An 1860 photo of a samurai warrior in complete armor ( Public domain )

Samurai Swords

The most popular sword wielded by the samurai was the katana sword, which is characterized by its distinctive appearance: a curved, single-edged blade with a circular or squared guard and long grip to accommodate two hands.

During the Meiji period (1868 – 1912), the samurai class was gradually disbanded, and the special privileges granted to them were taken away including the right to carry swords in public. Sword manufacture in Japan was banned in 1945 and many swords were confiscated and destroyed.

Most of the remaining samurai swords are now in private collections or displayed in museums, like the one stolen to carry out the recent attack in Taiwan.

Various samurai swords. Photo taken at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. ( Public Domain )


Earth Edit

Avengers Compound Edit

The Avengers Compound, [1] [2] also known as the New Avengers Facility, [3] was the primary base of operations of the Avengers in Upstate New York following the Battle of Sokovia. It was originally a warehouse owned by Stark Industries used to store equipment, [4] before being transformed by Tony Stark into the new headquarters for the Avengers. It was eventually destroyed completely by an alternate version of Thanos in 2023, and its ruins served as the battleground for the subsequent Battle of Earth.

Avengers Tower Edit

Avengers Tower, [5] formerly known as Stark Tower, is a skyscraper located in Manhattan, New York City. [6] The building was originally owned by Stark Industries and served as the headquarters of the Avengers until the Battle of Sokovia. [7] Tony Stark later sold the building to an unnamed buyer [8] and arranged for its valuable items to be sent on a cargo plane to the Avengers Compound.

It appeared in the films The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Doctor Strange, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, and Spider-Man: Far From Home as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Camp Lehigh Edit

Camp Lehigh was a military training facility located in Wheaton, New Jersey that belonged to the United States Army which also acted as one of the bases of the Strategic Scientific Reserve during World War II. Following the war, the base was transformed into a S.H.I.E.L.D. facility, where Howard Stark and Hank Pym performed research on the Tesseract and Pym Particles. [9] Later, Hydra scientist Arnim Zola secretly transferred his consciousness into a series of computers, where he remained until he was reactivated more than sixty years later by Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanoff. [9] The compound was then destroyed by a S.H.I.E.L.D. missile sent by Hydra.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The First Avenger, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, and Avengers: Endgame.

Hydra Siberian Facility Edit

The Hydra Siberian Facility is a facility located in Siberia, Russia formerly operated by Hydra which acted as the primary base of operations of the Winter Soldier Program. It was where Bucky Barnes was held by Hydra in cryostasis Hydra later held several more Winter Soldier candidates with Barnes at the facility. In 2016, Helmut Zemo learned of these five Winter Soldiers and traveled there to lure Steve Rogers, Barnes and Tony Stark over. Once the trio arrived, they discovered that Zemo had murdered the five Winter Soldiers were shown footage of Barnes' assassination of Howard and Maria Stark, enraging Stark and causing him to fight Barnes and Rogers.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Captain America: Civil War.

Joint Dark Energy Mission Facility Edit

The Joint Dark Energy Mission Facility was a top secret research facility used by S.H.I.E.L.D. and NASA to study the Tesseract as part of Project Pegasus. [10] It was eventually destroyed by the energy emitted by the Tesseract after Loki's arrival at the facility.

It appeared in the films Thor, The Avengers, and Captain Marvel.

Kamar-Taj Edit

Kamar-Taj is the main headquarters of the Masters of the Mystic Arts, [11] located in Kathmandu, Nepal. [12] [13] It was visited by Stephen Strange in search for a cure for his hands after they were severely injured by a car accident. It contains many ancient relics, guarded by Wong (who also temporarily acted as librarian), as well as being where new sorcerers are trained. Its library contains many books on magic. One section, the Ancient One's private collection, has the books chained up and guarded by the librarian. Kaecilius beheads the librarian when he steals pages from the Book of Cagliostro. Wong takes over his duties. Other books in the library, studied by Strange, are Maxim's Primer, Book of the Invisible Sun, Codex imperium, Astronomia nova, and The Key of Solomon. The Wi-Fi password is "Shamballa". [14]

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange and Avengers: Endgame.

Madripoor Edit

Madripoor is an island city-state in the Indonesian archipelago that is controlled by the Power Broker, and inhabited by several criminals. Sharon Carter, the Power Broker, is revealed to have been living luxuriously there as a dealer in stolen art since the Sokovia Accords, afraid to go back to the US for fear of arrest, due to her violation of the Sokovia Accords. The island is divided into two parts—the wealthy Hightown and the deprived Lowtown.

It appeared in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Midtown School of Science and Technology Edit

The Midtown School of Science and Technology is a STEM-focused [15] high school in Queens, New York City. [16] Its students include Peter Parker, Ned Leeds, Michelle, Flash Thompson, Betty Brant, Jason Ionello, Liz, Cindy Moon, Seymour O'Reilly, Tiny McKeever, Charles Murphy, Abe Brown, Sally Avril, Brad Davis, Zach Cooper, and Josh Scarino. Faculty includes Roger Harrington, Coach Wilson, Mr. Cobbwell, Monica Warren, Barry Hapgood, and Julius Dell. The school's principal is Principal Morita, who is shown to be a descendant of Howling Commandos member Jim Morita. [17]

It appeared in the films Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Endgame, and Spider-Man: Far From Home.

New Asgard Edit

The village of Tønsberg, located in Norway, housed the Tesseract for centuries until Johann Schmidt stole it during World War II. [18] The town is also where Odin resides in his final days after being banished by Loki. Following the Blip, the town is renamed New Asgard and serves as a refuge for the surviving Asgardians. [19] The Asgardians struggle there, however, with New Asgard restricted to a fishing village, noted by Rocket as "a step down from the fancy palaces" of the original Asgard.

It appeared in the films Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, and Avengers: Endgame.

New York Sanctum Edit

The New York Sanctum, located in Greenwich Village, New York City, is one of the three Sanctum Sanctorums on Earth, along with the London Sanctum and the Hong Kong Sanctum. It is used by the Masters of the Mystic Arts to store various relics and serves as one of their bases. It was formerly guarded by Daniel Drumm until his death at the hands of Kaecilius, and was replaced by Stephen Strange. In 2017, Strange detained Loki and invited Thor to the Sanctum, directing him to his father Odin. One year later, following his escape from the Statesman, Bruce Banner crash landed in the New York Sanctum and letter Strange and Tony Stark about the threat of Thanos. Wong later guarded the Sanctum following Strange's kidnapping by Ebony Maw.

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Puente Antiguo, New Mexico Edit

Puente Antiguo is a town located in the state of New Mexico. Astrophysicist Jane Foster, her intern Darcy Lewis, and her mentor Erik Selvig were studying atmospheric disturbances in the town when they encountered Thor arriving via the Bifrost. Upon learning of Mjolnir's location nearby, Thor stormed the S.H.I.E.L.D. facility that surrounded the hammer before being arrested by Phil Coulson. Later, following the arrival of Sif and the Warriors Three, the town became the battleground for a fight between Thor and the Destroyer, who had been sent by his brother Loki.

It appeared in the films Iron Man 2 and Thor.

Raft Edit

The Raft is a maximum security prison, with Thaddeus Ross serving as warden. Sam Wilson, Wanda Maximoff, Clint Barton, and Scott Lang were remanded to the prison after helping Steve Rogers and Bucky Barnes evade capture, thus violating the Sokovia Accords. However, they are later broken out by Rogers, with the exception of Barton and Lang (who wished to return to their families under house arrest). In 2024, days following his escape from a prison in Berlin, the Dora Milaje of Wakanda detain Helmut Zemo to the Raft via the Royal Talon Fighter. [20] Designed to hold super-powered individuals, the prison is located deep in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. [21] [22]

It appeared in the film Captain America: Civil War as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Rose Hill, Tennessee Edit

Rose Hill is a town in Tennessee where Tony Stark was forced to stay in after his armor ran out of power. It is also the hometown of Harley Keener, a child who aided Stark in repairing his suit and later attended his funeral.

It appeared in the film Iron Man 3.

Stark Eco-Compound Edit

The Stark Eco-Compound [23] is the residence of Tony Stark, Pepper Potts, and their daughter, Morgan Stark. Located in the countryside of Upstate New York, [2] it was built by Tony Stark shortly after his marriage with Potts, and he lived there until his death in 2023. His funeral was also held in front of his residence.

It appeared in the film Avengers: Endgame.

Sokovia Edit

Sokovia is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Slovakia and Czechia. It is the home of Wanda and Pietro Maximoff, as well as Helmut Zemo. During the Hydra Uprising, Hydra set up a research facility in Sokovia, where they experimented on Loki's scepter. It later became the battleground for a conflict between the Avengers and Ultron, which resulted in the country's capital city, Novi Grad, being completely destroyed, and led to the ratification of the Sokovia Accords. The country was annexed by the surrounding countries soon after.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Avengers: Age of Ultron as well as the Netflix series Iron Fist and the Disney+ series WandaVision and The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Stark Expo Edit

The Stark Expo is an exposition located at the Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York City. Started by Tony Stark's father, Howard, it brings together great minds and showcases new technology. Past attendees include Phineas Horton (showcasing his Synthetic Man) and Peter Parker. [24]

It appeared in the films Iron Man 2, Captain America: The First Avenger, and Spider-Man: Homecoming as well as the ABC series Agent Carter.

Stark Mansion Edit

The Stark Mansion was the private residence of Tony Stark, located at 10880 Malibu Point, Malibu, California. It was ultimately destroyed by Aldrich Killian (posing as the Mandarin) in a missile attack.

It appeared in the films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, and Iron Man 3.

Triskelion Edit

The Triskelion, located on Theodore Roosevelt Island, on Little Island at the foot of the Roosevelt Bridge, was the main base of operations for S.H.I.E.L.D. The base is taken over by Hydra during their uprising from within S.H.I.E.L.D. in order to use three weaponized Helicarriers to kill people they deem to be threats. It is later destroyed by a disabled Helicarrier. The incident was cited by Thaddeus Ross as one of a series involving the Avengers that ultimately culminated with the passing of the Sokovia Accords.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Ant-Man as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D..

Wakanda Edit

Wakanda is a highly advanced African nation that formerly posed as a struggling third world country before it was opened up to the world by King T'Challa. It is located at the northern end of Lake Turkana, bordering Ethiopia, South Sudan, Uganda and Kenya. Its capital city is Birnin Zana, also known as the Golden City. It is briefly shown on a holographic map in Iron Man 2 and is mentioned in Avengers: Age of Ultron as the source nation of vibranium. The main language is Xhosa. It is landlocked in the central mountains far from the coasts, allowing it to isolate itself from outsiders. Internally it consists of lush river valleys, mountain ranges rich in natural resources, and a capital city that integrates space-age technology with traditional designs. Wakanda consists of five tribes: the River Tribe, the Mining Tribe, the Merchant Tribe, the Border Tribe, and the Jabari Tribe. The ruling family are a tribe of their own, the Golden Tribe (also referred to as the Panther Tribe), formed by the relatives and heirs of Bashenga, the first Black Panther. The country has been noted for its Afrofuturism in the MCU, [25] [26] [27] with the country cited as a possible example of how African nations might have developed in the absence of European colonialism. [28] [29] [30] Wakanda is expected to return in a major role in Black Panther: Wakanda Forever (2022). [31]

It appeared in the films Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Westview, New Jersey Edit

Westview is a town in New Jersey. Sometime between 2016 and 2018, the Vision bought a plot of land in the town for himself and Wanda Maximoff to live on, although only the foundations of a house were ever built, and Vision was killed soon after by Thanos. In 2023, two weeks after the Blip, Wanda Maximoff arrives at the plot of land that she and Vision had purchased and inadvertently created an anomaly around the town, which placed almost all of its inhabitants to be placed under mind control. After the dissolution of the barrier, the residents escape, and Wanda's children and Vision disintegrate.

It appeared in the Disney+ series WandaVision.

Space Edit

Ego's planet Edit

Ego's planet was a living mass of matter that the Celestial Ego had formed around himself, causing him to resemble a large red planet with his face on. To interact with others, he utilized a human avatar. Apart from Ego himself, the only true inhabitant was Mantis. This planet is where Yondu delivered the half-Celestial offspring of Ego, and the planet is destroyed after the Guardians plant a bomb in Ego's brain.

It appeared in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.

Garden Edit

The Garden, [32] also known as Planet 0259-S [33] and Titan II, [34] is a greenfield planet where Thanos resided following his "retirement". After fulfilling his lifelong goal of wiping out half of the Universe, he teleported to the planet and smiled at the sunrise as he reflected on his success. Three weeks later, the Avengers traveled to the Garden and learned that Thanos had destroyed the Infinity Stones two days earlier. Enraged, Thor uses Stormbreaker to decapitate Thanos before leaving the planet.

It appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame.

Knowhere Edit

Knowhere is the severed head of an ancient deceased Celestial which acts as the homeworld of the Exitar mining colony, founded by Taneleer Tivan and his company. In 2013, the Asgardian Sif and Volstagg journeyed there to entrust Tivan with the Reality Stone for safekeeping in his museum, unaware of his goal to collect the other Infinity Stones. Not long after, the Guardians of the Galaxy arrived at Knowhere with the intention of selling the Collector the Power Stone, but the museum was destroyed after the Collector's assistant Carina attempted to free herself by using the Stone. Meanwhile, Drax secretly alerted Ronan and his forces of Gamora's location so he could avenge the deaths of his wife and daughter, leading Ronan to stage an attack on Knowhere which culminated with the Orb being acquired by Ronan. In 2018, Thanos attacked Knowhere and acquired the Reality Stone from Tivan before destroying the place.

It appeared in the films Thor: The Dark World, Guardians of the Galaxy, and Avengers: Infinity War.

Kyln Edit

The Kyln is a high-security prison run by the Nova Corps. The prison is run by Kyln Hoverbots, unmanned security drones. The Guardians of the Galaxy are brought together as a team in the prison, with Peter Quill, Gamora, Groot, and Rocket meeting Drax, who is already an inmate. The five later escape and journey to Knowhere, where they plan to sell the Orb to the Collector. Thanos (not knowing of this development) orders Ronan and Nebula to raid the prison to locate the Orb and capture Gamora, who had rebelled against him. Whilst torturing a guard for information, Nebula receives a message that the Nova Corps had dispatched a fleet in order to retake the prison and defend its inhabitants. To ensure that no-one at the prison informed the Nova Corps of his objective, Ronan orders Nebula to "cleanse" the prison, massacring all of its guards and inmates.

It appeared in the film Guardians of the Galaxy.

Morag Edit

Morag is an abandoned planet located in the Andromeda Galaxy. Once inhabited by a thriving and technologically advanced humanoid population, the inhabitants built a large temple to house the Orb, which contained the Power Stone, an Infinity Stone once wielded by the Celestial Eson the Searcher. The oceans later rose due to unknown factors, and subsequently only briefly recede to expose landmasses once every 300 years. Star-Lord later visits the planet in order to obtain the Orb, confronting Korath and other Kree on the planet whilst doing so. Nebula and War Machine later time-travel to Morag and knock Peter Quill out in order to obtain the Power Stone.

It appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy and Avengers: Endgame.

Sakaar Edit

Sakaar is a planet ruled by the Grandmaster, who holds his Contest of Champions on the planet. A rebellion by gladiators leads to his overthrow, although his fate is left uncertain. His tower of previous champions features heads resembling Man-Thing, Ares, Bi-Beast, Dark-Crawler, Fin Fang Foom, and Beta Ray Bill, revealing that they possibly have been on the planet at some point, in addition to Thor, Hulk, Loki, Korg, and Valkyrie. Miek is a native Sakaaran creature, while Thanos and Ronan employ several Sakaaran warriors. Time is shown as flowing in an irregular fashion, allowing the Grandmaster to live unageing for millions of years, and for Loki to arrive on the planet weeks before Thor, despite exiting the Bifrost just seconds before him.

It appeared in the film Thor: Ragnarok and the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Sanctuary Edit

The Sanctuary, also known as Chitauri Space, is an asteroid field inhabited by the Chitauri, and is the domain of Thanos, which he watches over from his throne. The Other and Ronan also receive their orders from Thanos in the Sanctuary.

It appeared in the films The Avengers, Guardians of the Galaxy, and Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Titan Edit

Titan is a habitable exoplanet and the former homeworld of Thanos. [35] It was left in ruin after overpopulation wiped out its inhabitants, an event which Thanos offered a solution to: exterminating half the population. In 2018, Tony Stark, Stephen Strange, Peter Parker, Peter Quill, Drax and Mantis meet on Titan to confront Thanos. Strange uses the Time Stone to look into all of the possible outcomes from their conflict, but only sees one in which they win. Due to Quill striking him, Thanos is able to defeat them, and, having gained the Time Stone, teleports to Wakanda. After the Blip, Stark and Nebula are the only survivors and are left stranded on Titan. A restored Strange brings the restored Parker and Guardians via a portal from Titan to Earth five years later, in order to battle an alternate version of Thanos. [36]

It appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame.

Vormir Edit

Vormir is a barren planet and the location of the Soul Stone, which is guarded by the Red Skull who had been teleported there by the Tesseract in 1942 and cursed to serve as the Stonekeeper. When Thanos sent his children to find the Infinity Stones, Gamora and Nebula tracked the Soul Stone down to Vormir only to burn the map that had led them to it in order to prevent Thanos from obtaining it. Gamora, however, memorizes the location, which Thanos is able to get from her when he captures her in 2018. She is then sacrificed by him on the planet. In 2023, Clint Barton and Natasha Romanoff time-travel to the planet in an alternate timeline, where Romanoff sacrifices herself so Barton could obtain the Stone. According to Nebula, it is located "at the very center of celestial existence".

It appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame.

Xandar Edit

Xandar is the homeworld of the Xandarians and is the capital of the Nova Empire. It is also the home of the Nova Corps. In 2014, during the Battle of Xandar, Ronan used the Power Stone to attack Xandar in retaliation for the death of his father and forefathers in the Kree-Nova War, killing many of the Nova Corps. However, the Guardians of the Galaxy and the Ravagers arrive and help the Nova Corps defeat Ronan, entrusting them with the Infinity Stone. It is later revealed that Thanos and his children had decimated the planet whilst seeking the Orb.

It appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.

Nine Realms Edit

The Nine Realms are nine planets, and planetary bodies, located in various parts of the Milky Way, connected through Yggdrasil, the Bifrost, and portals. They are overseen by the Asgardians, the most powerful race of the nine, who conquered the other planets over several thousand years.

Asgard Edit

Asgard was a small, flat planetary body, located in the center of the Milky Way, and is the home of the Asgardians. It is eventually destroyed by Surtur, with the remaining survivors heading to Earth in the Statesman.

It appeared in the films Thor, Thor: The Dark World, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage)`.

Rainbow Bridge Edit

The Rainbow Bridge was a long magical bridge that runs from the center of Asgard to the edge, connecting the Royal Palace of Valaskjalf to Himinbjorg, the home of Heimdall and the generator of the Bifrost Bridge, an Einstein-Rosen Bridge that draws energy from the Rainbow Bridge to work, allowing instant transportation. In 2011, the Rainbow Bridge was destroyed by Thor, but it was later repaired by him and Heimdall using the power of the Tesseract.

It appeared in the films Thor, Thor: The Dark World, Thor: Ragnarok, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Odin's vault Edit

Odin's vault, also known as Odin's treasure room, is a room in the Royal Palace of Valaskjalf that contains many powerful and magical objects, such as a replica of the Infinity Gauntlet, the Eternal Flame, the Casket of Ancient Winters, and the Tesseract.

It appeared in the films Thor and Thor: Ragnarok.

Hel Edit

Hel is a region in Niflheim that serves as the home of the dead. After Hela was banished there by her father, Odin, she attempted to escape and slaughtered almost all of the Valkyrie, only to be defeated by Odin once again.

It appeared in the films Thor: The Dark World and Thor: Ragnarok.

Jotunheim Edit

Jotunheim is an icy planet that is home of the Frost Giants. It is also the birthplace of Loki, a Jotunn abandoned by his father Laufey and subsequently raised by the Asgardian Odin.

It appeared in the films Thor and Thor: The Dark World.

Muspelheim Edit

Muspelheim is a Dyson sphere, and home to the Fire Demons, most notably Surtur. Two years following the Battle of Sokovia, Thor journeyed there to confront Surtur on Ragnarok before killing him.

It appeared in the films Thor: The Dark World and Thor: Ragnarok.

Nidavellir Edit

Nidavellir is an Alderson disk surrounding a dying star, inhabited by gigantic Dwarves who served as blacksmiths for the Asgardians, forging weapons such as Mjolnir, Stormbreaker, Thanos' blade, and the Infinity Gauntlet out of uru. Sometime between 2014 and 2015, Thanos visited the forge, forcing the Dwarves to make the Infinity Gauntlet before slaughtering them and smelting Eitri's hands. Thor, Groot, and Rocket visited the forge several years later, aiding Eitri in creating Stormbreaker.

It appeared in the film Avengers: Infinity War.

Svartalfheim Edit

Svartalfheim, also known as the Dark World, is a planet that is wreathed in perpetual darkness. Located in the same star system as Vormir, it is ruled by the Dark Elves, led by Malekith the Accursed.

It appeared in the film Thor: The Dark World and the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Vanaheim Edit

Vanaheim is a densely wooded planet, home of the Vanir. It is also the site of a battle between the Æsir-Vanir forces and the Marauders, a band of pirates.

It appeared in the film Thor: The Dark World.

Yggdrasil Edit

Yggdrasil is a network of galactic superclusters connecting the Nine Realms, shaped like a tree, with each branch connecting a realm. It is described as a "cosmic nimbus".

It appeared in the films Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Thor: Ragnarok.

Multiverse Edit

The Multiverse is a collection of parallel universes. The only universe seen so far in the MCU is Earth-199999 (the main universe), which, in addition to its main timeline, has an alternate timeline created when an alternate version of Loki from 2012 stole the Tesseract (later reset by the Time Variance Authority), and a timeline created when an alternate version of Thanos from 2014 traveled forward in time to 2023 in the main universe. This latter timeline is also where the Power Stone and Soul Stone were taken from by Nebula, James Rhodes, Natasha Romanoff, and Clint Barton before being returned by Steve Rogers. The other timelines created by the removal of the Infinity Stones are nullified by Rogers replacing the stones at the moment they were taken. In Spider-Man: Far from Home, Mysterio claims to be from Earth-833, and declares the universe that he is in now to be Earth-616 (the main universe of the comics). However, he is revealed to be a fraud, and not from an alternate universe.

The term "multiverse" was first used in Doctor Strange, to describe all the various dimensions in the universe. The concept of a Multiverse was featured or referenced in the films Avengers: Endgame and Spider-Man: Far From Home, as well as the Disney+ series Loki. It will be further explored in What If. , and Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness.

Dimensions Edit

Astral Dimension Edit

The Astral Dimension, also known as the Astral Plane or the Ancestral Plane, is a dimension in which the soul resides outside the body. It is mainly featured in the form of astral projection, although in Black Panther, it is a physical location, with deceased Wakandans residing there and able to communicate with the living upon ingestion of the heart-shaped herb.

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series WandaVision.

Dark Dimension Edit

The Dark Dimension is a timeless dimension inhabited by Dormammu. It is an amalgamation of itself and all other dimensions Dormammu had conquered and absorbed into it. Stephen Strange visits it to bargain with Dormammu after Kaecilius contacts it to absorb the Earth.

It appeared in the film Doctor Strange as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and Agent Carter, the Hulu series Runaways, and the Freeform series Cloak & Dagger.

Mirror Dimension Edit

The Mirror Dimension is a dimension used by Doctor Strange in an attempt to defeat Kaecilius. It causes the surroundings to be reflected in different directions, similar to the function of a mirror, without affecting the real world. Due to its nature, it is used by the sorcerers for training and controlling threats. As well as fighting Kaecilius in the Mirror Dimension, Strange also attempts to fight Thanos in it (although Thanos destroys it). It is later revealed that the Ancient One also utilized it during the Battle of New York against the Chitauri in 2012.

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Soul World Edit

The Soul World, also known as the Way Station, [37] is a pocket dimension inside the Soul Stone [38] where Thanos found himself in for a brief moment after he snapped his fingers and wiped out half of the Universe's population, where he encountered a young Gamora. Christopher Markus, co-writer of Avengers: Endgame, also stated that Banner met the Hulk in the Soul World. The Soul World was originally also going to be visited by Tony Stark in a deleted scene of Avengers: Endgame, where he would have met an older version of his daughter Morgan. [39]

It appeared in the film Avengers: Infinity War.

Quantum Realm Edit

The Quantum Realm is a realm that subverts the normal order of time, and is only accessible via subatomic shrinking, or a Sling Ring. It was where Janet van Dyne was stranded for thirty years before being rescued. Scott Lang was also stranded there after Ant-Man and the Wasp for five years, although he only experienced five hours in the realm. The Avengers later use it to time travel and reverse the Blip, on Lang's suggestion. Stephen Strange was also briefly sent there on a tour of the Multiverse by the Ancient One.

It appeared in the films Ant-Man, Doctor Strange, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D..

Vehicles Edit

Benatar Edit

The Benatar is an ex-Ravager M-type spaceship utilized by the Guardians of the Galaxy, piloted by Peter Quill, and named after Pat Benatar, acquired after the Milano was severely damaged on Berhert. After Thanos destroys the Statesman, the Guardians rescue Thor in the Benatar, using it to travel to Knowhere and Titan. Following the Blip, Tony Stark and Nebula board the ship and begin to head back to Earth, only to discover that the fuel cells of the ship had been damaged, leaving them to drift in space until the arrival of Carol Danvers. The Avengers later also used the Benatar during their killing of Thanos and the Time Heist.

It appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame.

Dark Aster Edit

The Dark Aster was the flagship of Ronan the Accuser, a three-mile wide ship in the Kree Accusers fleet that was given to him for his personal use. He used it to take care of threats, and, after the signing of a peace treaty with the Nova Empire, to attack Xandar. It was later destroyed by the Milano during the Battle of Xandar.

It appeared in the film Guardians of the Galaxy.

Helicarriers Edit

Helicarriers are flying aircraft carriers used by S.H.I.E.L.D. as mobile command centers. They are equipped with optical camouflage and, later, large-sized cannons and repulsor engines courtesy of Tony Stark, as well as two stacked carrier decks, a hull number of 64, and optical camouflage capabilities. [40] The hull number may be a reference to the former USS Constellation. [41] During the Hydra Uprising, Hydra (hidden within S.H.I.E.L.D.) attempted to use three Helicarriers linked to S.H.I.E.L.D. satellites to assassinate potential threats, but were destroyed by Steve Rogers, Sam Wilson, Natasha Romanoff, and Nick Fury. Following the dissolution of S.H.I.E.L.D., the original Helicarrier was recommissioned by Phil Coulson under the Theta Protocol and used to assist the Avengers during the Battle of Sokovia.

They appeared in the films The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, and Avengers: Age of Ultron as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and Loki (archival footage).

Luis' van Edit

Luis' van was a brown 1972 Ford Econoline owned by Luis and used by him, Scott Lang, Dave, and Kurt. It was later used by them for their company, X-Con Security Consultants, and was outfitted with a miniaturized Quantum Tunnel. Whilst in the Realm to collect quantum energy for Ava Starr, Thanos snapped his fingers and wiped out half the universe, including the entire Pym family who was operating the tunnel, trapping Scott for five years (although he only experienced five hours) until a rat running over the control panel reactivated it, allowing him to escape. It was eventually destroyed by Thanos during the Battle of Earth in order to prevent Captain Marvel entering the Quantum Realm with the gauntlet.

It appeared in the films Ant-Man, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame.

Lemurian Star Edit

The Lemurian Star is a ship owned by S.H.I.E.L.D. and used to launch Project Insight satellites. During the Hydra Uprising, the ship was hijacked by a group of pirates led by Georges Batroc and under the employment of Nick Fury, until Steve Rogers, Natasha Romanoff, and a S.T.R.I.K.E. team arrived to retake the ship. While Rogers and the S.T.R.I.K.E. team were busy taking out the pirates, Romanoff secretly acquired confidential S.H.I.E.L.D. files from the ship's computer, which she stored in a USB drive and gave it to Nick Fury, who in turn gave it to Rogers following the assassination attempt on him.

It appeared in the film Captain America: The Winter Soldier.

Leviathans Edit

Leviathans are large cybernetically-enhanced serpentine creatures used by the Chitauri under the command of Thanos to transport troops and warships, weighing approximately three million tonnes each. Following the Battle of New York, the Leviathans were salvaged by Hydra and others, and one of them was stored in the Hydra Research Base in Sokovia. Another group of Leviathans were later used by an alternate version of Thanos from 2014 to attack the Avengers during the Battle of Earth, and were destroyed when Tony Stark used the Nano Gauntlet to snap his fingers.

They appeared in the films The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Milano Edit

The Milano is an M-type spaceship flown by Peter Quill since he was ten, named after his childhood crush. It was initially used for his outlaw adventures before becoming the main headquarters for the Guardians of the Galaxy. During the Battle of Xandar, Rocket uses the Warbird, a Ravager ship, to shoot a hole into the Dark Aster, allowing the Milano to enter. The Milano is destroyed when the Dark Aster crashes into the Xandarian capital, but is rebuilt after the battle by the Nova Corps. It was later severely damaged by an asteroid field and abandoned on Berhert, with the Benatar becoming the Guardians' new ship.

It appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, and Avengers: Endgame.

Omnicraft Edit

Omnicraft are small remotely-controlled spaceships used by the Sovereign to hunt down their enemies in a swarm. Two fleets of Omnicraft were destroyed by Ego and Yondu, respectively, enraging Ayesha, the High Priestess, and inspiring her to create a new type of Sovereign.

They appeared in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.

Q-Ships Edit

Q-Ships are ring-shaped spaceships used by Thanos and his children. They are stored in the Sanctuary II, and deployed from the ship when invading other planets. The Q-Ships also contain Outrider dropships, allowing them to unleash Outriders onto a battlefield. When Ebony Maw and Cull Obsidian attack New York City in 2018, Doctor Strange is taken prisoner on a Q-Ship until his rescue by Tony Stark and Peter Parker, with Maw being sucked out of the ship into the vacuum of space in the process.

They appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame.

Quinjet Edit

Quinjets are technologically advanced jets used by S.H.I.E.L.D., the Avengers, and S.T.R.I.K.E. teams. After the Battle of Sokovia, the Hulk leaves on a Quinjet, escaping Earth's atmosphere before crash-landing on Sakaar via a wormhole.

They appeared in the films The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D..

Royal Talon Fighter Edit

The Royal Talon Fighter is an advanced Wakandan aircraft. The aircraft, resembling a mask from the top and bottom, is capable of high speed flight and features cloaking technology in order to render it invisible to the naked eye.

It appeared in the films Black Panther and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Sanctuary II Edit

The Sanctuary II is a massive twelve-mile long spaceship used by Thanos and his forces. It serves as an orbital base when an invasion is in progress, and a heavily armed warcraft. It can also carry four Q-Ships under its wings. Following the Time Heist, an alternate version of Thanos and his army from 2014 is transported to 2023 on the Sanctuary II, and the Avengers Compound is completely destroyed by missiles. During the subsequent Battle of Earth, Thanos orders his troops to "rain fire" on the battlefield, but the attack is halted with the arrival of Captain Marvel, who single-handedly destroys the entire ship.

It appeared in the films Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Statesman Edit

The Statesman was a very large spaceship owned by the Grandmaster that was stolen by Loki and the Sakaaran rebels before traveling to Asgard, where it was used to safely transport the Asgardians away before Ragnarok occurred. However, on its way to Earth, it was attacked by the Sanctuary II and later destroyed by Thanos using the Power Stone. Fortunately, half of its passengers (led by Valkyrie) were able to escape and settled in New Asgard on Earth.

It appeared in the films Thor: Ragnarok and Avengers: Infinity War as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Steve Rogers' motorcycle Edit

Steve Rogers uses a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the MCU. In Captain America: The First Avenger, Rogers uses a weaponized 1942 WLA motorcycle in World War II in his fights against Hydra. [42] In Captain America: The Winter Soldier and The Falcon and the Winter Soldier, this model is shown to be displayed in the Captain America exhibit in the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. [43] In The Avengers, Rogers is shown to have switched to a Softail Slim model for commuting around New York City, before using the Street 750 model when fleeing from pursuing Hydra agents in The Winter Soldier. [44] Rogers later uses other models such as the Breakout, [45] V-Rod and the Softail Slim S. [46]

It appeared in the films Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, and Captain America: Civil War, as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Wakandan maglev train Edit

The Wakandan maglev train is an advanced maglev train used for public transport in the Golden City, Wakanda, as well as for transporting vibranium inside the mines in Mount Bashenga. The train has been used to compare Wakanda's Afrofuturism with transport infrastructure in the United States. [47]

It appeared in the film Black Panther.

Suits Edit

Ant-Man suit Edit

The Ant-Man suit enables the wearer to change size while retaining strength. The helmet contains a device that, by mimicking the pheromones of ants, allows the wearer to communicate with and control ants. The suit was designed by Hank Pym, the original Ant-Man, who used it during S.H.I.E.L.D. missions until the Pym Particles began to have an effect on him. It was later stolen by Scott Lang, who, with persuasion from Hank, became the next Ant-Man. A variation of the suit, worn by Pym during the rescue of Janet van Dyne, is used by Lang when experimenting with time travel. The Avengers' Time Suits are also variations of the Ant-Man suit, allowing the team to enter the Quantum Realm.

It appeared in the films Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Black Panther suit Edit

The Black Panther suit is a protective nanotech suit woven from vibranium that is worn by the King of Wakanda in his duties as the Black Panther. The suit features retractable claws made of vibranium (allowing them to cut through nearly anything), is near-impenetrable, and is able to absorb kinetic energy. Versions of the suit have been worn by T'Chaka, T'Challa, and N'Jadaka over time. T'Challa's second suit (invented by Shuri) is able to be shrunk down into a necklace as well as absorb energy for redistribution later. The suit is a combination of a practical costume and visual effects, featuring a vibranium mesh weave similar to chainmail. [48] Captain America: Civil War costume designer Judianna Makovsky called the Black Panther costume "difficult" since "you needed sort of a feline body, but it's hard and practical at the same time. You needed a feeling of some sort of ethnicity in there, but of a world [Wakanda] we weren't really creating yet, so you didn't want to go too far and say too much about that world." [49]

It appeared in the films Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Captain America's uniform Edit

Captain America's uniform is the costume worn by the bearers of the Captain America mantle whilst on missions.

Steve Rogers' uniform Edit

The first uniform, worn by Steve Rogers, was a cloth USO costume based on his original costume from the comics, along with a heater shield. Upon hearing that Bucky Barnes' unit was MIA, he altered his USO uniform for the rescue mission, wearing a combat jacket and pants over the costume, and donning a blue helmet from a USO chorus girl. He also carried his heater shield. Having proved himself in combat, Howard Stark designed a combat uniform made of carbon polymer, with leather pouches and a holster. He also switched to a wingless mask/helmet, and his round vibranium shield. After being unfrozen, he used a costume designed by S.H.I.E.L.D. resembling his USO uniform. During his time with S.T.R.I.K.E., he uses a new uniform designed for stealth missions, colored a darker shade of blue, and without the white highlights and red stripes. His shield was also recolored. He later returned to a variant of his World War II costume, taken from a display at the Smithsonian. This version featured more prominent stripes on the stomach, and a slightly different strap arrangement. His shield was restored to its usual coloring. Tony Stark later creates a new uniform for Steve, resembling his stealth suit (albeit more brightly and patriotically colored). This suit incorporated magnetic gauntlets, allowing him to recall his shield. A slightly different version of this suit is used during the Avengers Civil War. During his exile, he alters the suit to a more stealth version, removing the star and Avengers logo, and painting the suit black. He also wears Wakandan shields on both arms after leaving his shield with Stark. After the Avengers reunite, he uses a new uniform resembling his previous suit, again with minor differences. He also wields his vibranium shield again.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier and Loki (archival footage).

John Walker's uniform Edit

When John Walker is handed the Captain America mantle, he uses an entirely new design, based on that from the comics: the uniform is blue, with red highlights and chest stripes, and includes red fingerless gloves. In place of the Avengers logo, it has the flag of the United States on the arms, and a stylized star on the mask and chest. He also carries a handgun and a version of Captain America's shield given by Steve Rogers to Sam Wilson. After he is stripped of the title, he builds a new shield, and dyes his uniform black, becoming the "U.S. Agent".

It appeared in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Sam Wilson's flight suit Edit

Sam Wilson dons a new version of the uniform as the new Captain America, incorporating his new wings, which are made of vibranium. [50] This version, a gift from Wakanda, sticks closely to the version that he wears in the comics, with the main color being white as opposed to blue. The star design spreads across the whole chest, and resembles the logo of the U.S. Air Force. The white mask incorporates Wilson's red goggles, and stretches from the shoulders to just above his ears, leaving the top of his head bare. The boots of the uniform are also white, with blue and red highlights, while the leggings are blue.

It appeared in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Dora Milaje uniform Edit

The Dora Milaje uniform is the uniform worn by the Dora Milaje of Wakanda. It is made up of a body suit, harness, vibranium shoulder armor, neck rings, knee-high boots, and a waist cape. Silver rings are worn on the neck and arms (with the exception of Okoye, whose rings are gold to denote her status as general). The design of the uniform was partially inspired by tribal Filipino costume, as well as African influences. [52] Black Panther costume designer Ruth Carter wanted to avoid the "girls in the bathing suits" look, and instead had the Dora Milaje wear full armor that they would practically need for battle. [53] Anthony Francisco, the Senior Visual Development Illustrator, noted the Dora Milaje costumes were based 80 percent on the Maasai people, five percent on samurai, five percent on ninjas, and five percent on the Ifugao people from the Philippines. [51]

It appeared in the films Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

EXO-7 Falcon Edit

The EXO-7 Falcon suit is an experimental winged harness created by the U.S. military for the Air National Guard. It was used by former paratroopers Sam Wilson and Riley, the latter of whom was killed during a mission. Sam then left active duty, although he kept the suit, and later joined the Avengers after assisting Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanoff during the Hydra Uprising. The suit features retractable wings and a pair of collapsible Steyr SPP submachine guns. After joining the Avengers, Tony Stark creates a new set of retractable wings, featuring a drone as well as a wrist-mounted submachine gun. During a battle with John Walker, the suit is severely damaged beyond repair, and Sam leaves it with Joaquin Torres.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Iron Man's armor Edit

Iron Man's armor is a set of armored suits created by Tony Stark to combat threats. Most follow the same red and gold color scheme and contain similar functions. They are all derived from his original suit (the Mark I armor) that he built in order to escape the Ten Rings. Stark would eventually create up to 85 armors, 34 of which are part of the original "Iron Legion". Many of his early suits were highly mobile and versatile, with the ability to be transformed or stored in various objects such as a suitcase (Mark V), a cylindrical pod (Mark VII), detachable parts (Mark XLII), a satellite (Mark XLIV), and more. Eventually, beginning with the Mark L armor, Stark was able to store his armor in the form of nanobots in his Arc Reactor which could flow over his body, assembling based on cybernetic commands, allowing Stark to create endless combinations and new weapons to manifest out of the armor. Several other armors are designed by Stark, or based on his designs, such as the Hulkbuster (Mark XLIV), War Machine, Iron Spider, Rescue (Mark XLIX), and Iron Monger suits.

It appeared in the films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

There are various other versions of the armor:

Hulkbuster armor Edit

The Iron Man Mark XLIV armor, also known as the Hulkbuster armor, is a modular add-on to Tony Stark's usual armor. Developed by Stark and Bruce Banner after studying the Hulk's actions and strength levels, its purpose is to restrain him and minimize the damage caused by his rages. The first generation Hulkbuster armor was remotely controlled by a mobile service module named Veronica (which was named after the Archie Comics character Veronica Lodge) [54] and was used to retrain the Hulk following a rampage by it in Johannesburg, South Africa.

In 2018, Banner is seen wearing an upgraded version of the armor (the Iron Man Mark XLVIII armor), which he utilizes during the Battle of Wakanda and the killing of Thanos, as he was unable to transform to the Hulk at that time.

It appeared in the films Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Iron Legion Edit

The Iron Legion is two separate sets of armor built by Tony Stark. The first Iron Legion is a set of specialized armors built for various situations that he might encounter such. Built due to his insomnia, he eventually destroys them due to the friction they cause between him and Pepper. The second Iron Legion is a set of drones built by Tony Stark in order to aid the Avengers. However, after the creation of the AI Ultron, it builds itself a body from a destroyed drone, and takes control of the rest. They are ultimately destroyed in battle with the Avengers.

It appeared in the films Iron Man 3 and Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Iron Monger armor Edit

The Iron Monger armor is an armored suit similar to the Iron Man armor. After Obadiah Stane gains Stark's salvaged Mark I armor from the Ten Rings, he reverse engineers it to create an even more powerful suit with added weapons, such as a minigun on the right arm. The suit is powered by Stark's personal Arc Reactor, forcing Stark to use a replacement to power his own suit, although he manages to defeat Stane, who is ultimately killed in the battle.

It appeared in the film Iron Man.

Iron Spider armor Edit

The Iron Spider armor, also known as Item 17A, is an armored nanotech suit created by Tony Stark for Peter Parker's use as an Avenger. The suit features four mechanical legs that can be unfolded from the back of the suit, allowing enhanced mobility and climbing skills, as well as web-shooters that are able to generate their own synthetic web fluid. Following his fight with the Vulture, Stark offers Parker membership to the Avengers, but Parker declines both membership and the armor. Two years later, Stark uses it to rescue Parker after he falls from Ebony Maw's Q-Ship, and Parker uses it during his time in space on Titan, although it is disintegrated along with him after the Blip. Five years later, following the Blip, the armor is restored along with Parker, who uses it to participate in the Battle of Earth. A few months later, after wearing it to a local charity event, Parker puts the armor in a nanotechnology housing unit in his bedroom.

It appeared in the films Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, and Spider-Man: Far From Home.

Rescue armor Edit

The Iron Man Mark XLIX armor, [55] also known as the Rescue armor, [2] is an armored nanotech suit created by Tony Stark for his wife, Pepper Potts. It features a blue and silver color scheme, and many of the same abilities as Iron Man's armor. Potts uses it in the Battle of Earth against Thanos and his forces. [56]

It appeared in the film Avengers: Endgame.

War Machine armor Edit

The War Machine armor is a powered suit of armor first developed by Tony Stark as the Mark II armor. James Rhodes later confiscates the suit and brings it to the U.S. government, which is enhanced by Justin Hammer with machine guns in the wrists, a minigun on the right shoulder and a grenade launcher on the left, weapons which later proved to be ineffective. The armor retains repulsors in the chest and hands. Stark later removes the modifications and rebuilds the suit himself using his own superior technology. This upgraded suit is briefly given a red, white, and blue color scheme and renamed the Iron Patriot by the U.S. government. It is later changed back to the gray color scheme and upgraded again, but accidentally disabled by the Vision mid-flight during the Avengers Civil War, causing Rhodes to crash and become paralyzed. An artificial exoskeleton is added to the armor, allowing him to walk again. For the Battle of Earth, Rhodes dons a new suit reminiscent of the original Iron Patriot armor, featuring multiple advanced weapons such as rocket launchers.

It appeared in the films Iron Man 2, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Spider-Man suit Edit

The Spider-Man suit is a suit that Peter Parker wears whilst fighting crime as Spider-Man. It contains various built-in devices to aid him to this end. His first suit, a simple homemade costume, consisted of a red hoodie, blue pants, a blue shirt, and a red mask with black goggles (made from altered camera lenses) to help him focus his senses, which have been "dialled up to eleven". It also has homemade Web-shooters, built by Parker, which shoot out synthetic webbing, a sticky substance also developed by him. After Tony Stark recruits him during the Avengers Civil War, he is given a new, more advanced suit, featuring a more modern and streamlined design, a built-in AI, improved goggles, and advanced web shooters. Joe Russo described this suit as "a slightly more traditional, Steve Ditko influenced suit". [57] He ceases to use this suit during the Infinity War, instead using the Iron Spider armor, which offered more protection and abilities. In an effort to conceal Spider-Man's identity, Talos (disguised as Nick Fury) has a seamstress make Peter a new stealth suit in Europe, later dubbed the "Night Monkey" suit by Ned Leeds. This version is entirely black in color, and is less advanced than the Stark suit, with the hood consisting of a black mask and flip-up goggles. After the suit is stolen by a prison warden, Peter builds himself a new one using the late Stark's technology, which he utilizes during his battle with Mysterio in London.

It appeared in the films Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, and Spider-Man: Far From Home.

Thanos' armor Edit

Thanos' armor is a suit of armor worn by Thanos during his time as a warlord. It comprises a helmet, breastplate, greaves, cuisses, gauntlets, and metal boots. Crafted from extremely strong metal, it is able to withstand blows from the Hulk, as seen during Thanos' attack on the Statesman. He then removes the armor for the rest of his quest, as it is not needed. After completing his mission of wiping out half of the universe's population, he retires to the Garden, becomes a farmer, and uses his armor as a scarecrow.

An alternate version of Thanos from 2014 wears the armor during the Battle of Earth. During the battle, he is attacked by Wanda Maximoff, who is able to badly damage the armor with her telekinesis powers. After Tony Stark snaps his fingers, it is destroyed along with Thanos and his army.

It appears in The Avengers, Guardians of the Galaxy, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Time Suits Edit

The Time Suits, [58] also known as the Advanced Tech Suits [59] or Quantum Suits, [60] are a variation of the Ant-Man suit, allowing the Avengers to shrink down to microscopic size and travel back in time through the Quantum Realm. They are used by the surviving Avengers and Guardians of the Galaxy—Tony Stark, Steve Rogers, Bruce Banner, Clint Barton, James Rhodes, Natasha Romanoff, Thor, Nebula, Rocket, and Scott Lang.

They appeared in the film Avengers: Endgame.

Weapons Edit

Bucky Barnes' prosthetic arm Edit

Bucky Barnes' prosthetic arm is a metal prosthesis worn by Bucky Barnes, which grants him increased strength. Hydra outfits him with the arm, which is silver with a red star on the shoulder, after his organic one was destroyed during his fall from a train during World War II. Barnes uses the arm as his primary weapon, using it to beat Howard Stark to death. Peter Parker is amazed by the arm, calling it "awesome". This version is later destroyed by Iron Man during the Avengers Civil War. After he is granted asylum in Wakanda, Shuri creates a new arm for him, colored black and gold and made out of vibranium. Rocket later expresses a desire to acquire the arm, although Barnes rebuffs him. This version also contains a fail-safe that can be used to remove it, allowing the Wakandans with this knowledge (such as Ayo of the Dora Milaje) to use this as an advantage when fighting him.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Captain America's shield Edit

Captain America's shield is a weapon made of the Wakandan element vibranium used by the bearers of the Captain America mantle, including Steve Rogers, John Walker and Sam Wilson. It is created by Howard Stark and given to Rogers during World War II. After Rogers' passing, the shield is given by Sam to the Smithsonian. However, the government passes it to John Walker, the new Captain America, who, just days later, uses it to murder a Flag Smasher. A partially completed replica/prototype of the shield is seen in Tony Stark's workshop, which he uses to level a machine. After he is stripped away of his title as Captain America, John Walker creates a new homemade shield from scrap metal and his Medal of Honor, which he later abandons during his fight with the Flag Smashers in New York City. [61] The shield is seen as a symbol of Captain America's strength and legacy. [62]

It appeared in the films Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agent Carter and the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier and Loki (archival footage).

Cosmi-Rod Edit

The Cosmi-Rod is Ronan the Accuser's primary weapon, a Kree war-hammer that projects concussive blasts. Ronan uses it (equipped with the Power Stone) to decimate the Nova Corps and plans to use it to destroy Xandar. However, Drax uses the Hadron Enforcer to destroy the Cosmi-Rod, allowing Peter Quill to grab the Power Stone and use it to kill Ronan.

It appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy and Captain Marvel.

Destroyer Edit

The Destroyer was an indestructible automaton used by Odin to stop threats such as the Frost Giants. [63] Loki later uses it to take on Thor on Earth before Thor regains his powers and kills the Destroyer. [64] [65] Later, parts of it were reassembled by S.H.I.E.L.D. agents into a prototype gun which was later used by Phil Coulson in the film The Avengers and the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.. [66]

It appeared in the film Thor.

Extremis Edit

Extremis is a form of genetic manipulation developed by Maya Hansen and Aldrich Killian. It gives a person an advanced healing factor, meaning that they are able to regenerate from physical damage, deformities and even psychological damage. Subjects also have the ability to control their body heat and generate fire. However, those whose bodies reject the treatment violently explode. Killian uses it to heal his deformity and cure injured war veterans such as Ellen Brandt.

It appeared in the film Iron Man 3 as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Gungnir Edit

Gungnir was Odin's spear, capable of channelling the Odinforce. Loki also uses it during his two tenures as the King of Asgard. Following Hela's ascension to the throne, Thor returns to Asgard after his escape from Sakaar and uses it to summon Hela to the Royal Palace of Valaskjalf. There, he fights Hela and attempts to use the spear kill her, but she easily disarms him and knocks the spear away. The spear was left in the throne room during their fight and is presumably destroyed during Ragnarok.

It appeared in the films Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Thor: Ragnarok.

Hammer Drones Edit

The Hammer Drones were remotely-controlled humanoid drones designed by Ivan Vanko and commissioned by Justin Hammer following his previous failed attempts to recreate the Iron Man armor. They were designed for use by various branches of the military, with Hammer hoping that they would replace Iron Man. However, at the Stark Expo, Vanko secretly took control of the drones and used them to wreak havoc, hoping to get revenge on Tony Stark. They were ultimately defeated by Stark and James Rhodes (wearing the War Machine armor), after which Vanko blew up the drones and himself.

They appeared in the film Iron Man 2.

Hawkeye's bow and quiver Edit

Hawkeye's bow and quiver are a pair of tools used by Clint Barton (Hawkeye) that serve as his primary weapons. The bow is a collapsible recurve bow, whilst the quiver is mechanized, able to store and deploy his signature trick arrows. After the Blip, he swaps his bow for a katana which he uses to murder criminals such as the Japanese Yakuza.

They appeared in the films Thor, The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Hofund Edit

Hofund, also known as the Bifrost Sword, was a magical sword used by Heimdall (and, during his exile, Skurge) that was able to channel the Bifrost. It also serves as the key to activate the Bifrost. It is last used by Heimdall to transport the Hulk to Earth before he is killed by Thanos. It was presumably destroyed along with the Statesman during Thanos' acquisition of the Space Stone.

It appeared in the films Thor, Thor: The Dark World, Thor: Ragnarok, and Avengers: Infinity War.

Infinity Gauntlet Edit

The Infinity Gauntlet is a left-handed metal gauntlet owned by Thanos. Designed specially for the purpose, it is capable of harnessing the power and abilities of all six Infinity Stones at once, thus making the wearer able to do anything in their imagination. It was forged from uru by Eitri and the Dwarves of Nidavellir (under duress) around two years before the Infinity War. The one weakness of the Gauntlet is that the wearer must clench their fist in order to use the power, which the Avengers use to their advantage during the Battle of Titan. The power surge generated by the Gauntlet is enough to kill a human (such as Tony Stark) or seriously injure a strong being (such as Thanos or the Hulk). Several other versions of the Gauntlet exist: a fake one was kept by Odin in his vault, a Stark-tech version was created by the Avengers and used by the Hulk to undo the Blip, while a makeshift version formed by Tony Stark in his armor was used to disintegrate Thanos' army.

It appeared in the films Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Jericho Missile Edit

The Jericho Missile was an experimental guided missile developed by Stark Industries for the United States Armed Forces that, when launched, would separate into 16 smaller missiles. However, at a demonstration for the weapon in Afghanistan, the convoy was ambushed, and Tony Stark was wounded and captured. The Ten Rings attempted to force Stark to build a Jericho Missile for them, but Stark instead secretly built the first Iron Man armor, leading to him becoming Iron Man.

It appeared in the film Iron Man.

Loki's scepter Edit

Loki's scepter, also known as the Chitauri scepter or simply the Scepter, is an bladed weapon with an extendable handle, given as a gift to Loki by Thanos, in order to aid him in conquering Earth. It has a blue orb at the top, containing the Mind Stone, allowing Loki to brainwash and control others by touching them with it. It is also used as a weapon, with Loki most notably fatally stabbing Phil Coulson in the chest with it (though he was later secretly revived by Nick Fury). After the Battle of New York, it is taken by S.H.I.E.L.D. for investigation, although Hydra, having infiltrated the agency, took it for themselves, with Strucker and Dr. List using it to unlock and amplify Wanda and Pietro Maximoff's powers. It is later recaptured by the Avengers, and Tony Stark and Bruce Banner use the AI inside the gem to create Ultron. Ultron uses it to brainwash Helen Cho, who in turn created the Vision, with the gem becoming embedded in his forehead. During the Time Heist, Steve Rogers uses his knowledge of the future to gain the scepter from the S.T.R.I.K.E. team.

It appeared in the films Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series WandaVision and Loki (archival footage).

Mjolnir Edit

Mjolnir, or more formally, Mjölnir, is an enchanted war-hammer made from uru by the Dwarves of Nidavellir that is capable of controlling lightning and allows the user to fly if it is spun rapidly and released with enough power. Before Thor is banished to Earth, Odin enchants the hammer so that only those deemed "worthy" would be able to wield it and be granted the power of Thor. It originally belonged to Hela before she was banished from Asgard, and is destroyed by her upon her return following Odin's death. Others who have wielded the weapon include the Vision and Steve Rogers, the latter whom budges it at a party (to avoid upsetting Thor) and later wields a version of it (retrieved by Thor during the Time Heist) during the Battle of Earth. Following the battle, the alternate version is returned to its original timeline.

It appeared in the films Iron Man 2, Thor, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Nano Gauntlet Edit

The Nano Gauntlet, [67] also known as the Iron Gauntlet [68] or the Power Gauntlet, [69] is a right-handed metal gauntlet created by Tony Stark, Bruce Banner, and Rocket using Stark technology. It was designed to harness the power of the Infinity Stones akin to Thanos' Infinity Gauntlet, and was created to reverse the Blip. After the Avengers retrieve alternate versions of the six Infinity Stones during the Time Heist, the Hulk uses it to snap his fingers and resurrect the lives of half the Universe, before an alternate version of Thanos from 2014 arrives and attempts to acquire the Gauntlet for himself. During the subsequent Battle of Earth, the gauntlet is passed around multiple individuals before ending up in the hands of Thanos, but the Stones are secretly removed by Tony Stark, who snaps his fingers and disintegrates Thanos and his army.

It appeared in the film Avengers: Endgame.

Necroswords Edit

Necroswords were a series of obsidian swords that acted as the primary weapons of Hela. She was able to generate and power them at will from her necro-energy, an energy generated by her body from the power that she drew directly from Asgard. She used the swords, which can take any form, to slaughter the Valkyrie prior to being re-imprisoned by Odin, as well as the Warriors Three and Einherjar after her second escape. She also used them against Thor, Loki, Valkyrie, Skurge, and Surtur.

They appeared in the film Thor: Ragnarok.

Quad Blasters Edit

The Quad Blasters are Peter Quill's primary weapons as the intergalactic outlaw known as Star-Lord.

The blasters have two separate triggers controlling two separate barrels. These triggers are fired using the index and middle finger, allowing them to be fired at the same time, and allowing for both lethal and non-lethal shots to be fired. When not in use, they are stored in holsters under his jacket. The bottom barrel of each gun fires non-lethal shots, shooting out a stream of electricity, allowing Quill to electrocute or stun his opponents. The top barrel fires lethal shots, blasting out a fiery burst of plasma, killing most targets on impact, although the strength of the opponent can also play a part.

They appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Shocker's gauntlet Edit

The Shocker's gauntlet is a mechanical weapon originally owned by Brock Rumlow. During a fight with the Avengers in Lagos, Captain America rips one off one of Rumlow's gauntlets, which is recovered by the Department of Damage Control and later stolen by Adrian Toomes. Phineas Mason modifies the gauntlet before passing it to Jackson Brice, who uses the gauntlet while calling himself the "Shocker". After Brice is disintegrated, it is used by Herman Schultz, the second Shocker, until his defeat at the hands of Spider-Man.

It appeared in the film Spider-Man: Homecoming.

Shuri's gauntlets Edit

Shuri's gauntlets are a pair of vibranium gauntlets designed and used by Shuri. Shaped like a panther's head, they emit a powerful sonic blast capable of subduing a Black Panther. They are ultimately destroyed by Killmonger. After Killmonger's demise at the hands of her brother, T'Challa, Shuri designs a second pair which she uses during the Infinity War and Battle of Earth.

They appeared in the films Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Stormbreaker Edit

Stormbreaker is a large battle axe created by the dwarf king Eitri on Nidavellir. The weapon, meant to be the most powerful in the Asgardian king's arsenal, has powers similar to Mjolnir and is also capable of summoning the Bifröst Bridge. [70]

It appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame.

Thanos' blade Edit

Thanos' blade [2] is a huge double-sided sword used by the 2014 version of Thanos. He uses it during the Battle of Earth to break Captain America's shield. However, the sword is itself broken in combat with Wanda Maximoff, who uses her powerful telekinesis powers to break the blade. Thanos later throws the blade at the van containing the Quantum Tunnel, destroying them. The blade's design was based on a helicopter used by Thanos in Marvel Comics, [71] although Thanos' creator Jim Starlin criticized this Easter egg. [72] [73]

It appeared in the film Avengers: Endgame.

Ultron Sentries Edit

The Ultron Sentries, also known as Sub-Ultrons, were a large army of robots that acted as extensions of Ultron. They were created by Ultron using resources from the Hydra Research Base in Sokovia and were directly controlled by him, thus acting as his personal army. They were eventually destroyed by the Avengers during the Battle of Sokovia, with the last Ultron Sentry destroyed by the Vision.

They appeared in the films Avengers: Age of Ultron and Spider-Man: Homecoming.

Ulysses Klaue's prosthetic arm Edit

Ulysses Klaue's prosthetic arm was a prosthetic arm used by Ulysses Klaue after his arm was chopped off by Ultron. Actually a modified Wakandan tool used for mining vibranium, it functioned as a sonic cannon, capable of shooting out high-energy blasts powerful enough to destroy a car and temporarily subdue a Black Panther. The sonic cannon could be retracted and hidden inside the prosthesis when not in use. It was later destroyed by T'Challa during a skirmish in Busan, Korea.

It appeared in the film Black Panther.

Web-shooters Edit

The Web-shooters are a pair of electromechanical gauntlets developed by Peter Parker for his use as the crime-fighter known as Spider-Man. They are capable of shooting synthetic webbing stored in small cartridges on the gauntlets. The first version of the Web-shooters, which were homemade by Parker, are upgraded by Tony Stark before the Avengers Civil War. The Iron Spider armor also features its own Web-shooters, which are more streamlined are technologically-advanced. After Stark's death, Peter uses his technology to craft himself a new pair after his old ones are destroyed.

They appeared in the films Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, and Spider-Man: Far From Home.

Widow's Bite Edit

The Widow's Bite is an electroshock weapon used by Natasha Romanoff in combat. Created by S.H.I.E.L.D., it delivers powerful electrical discharges from two gauntlets worn on the wrists. Tony Stark later creates a more powerful version for her, which causes the piping in her suit to light up and glow. It also stores her batons, charging them until needed. It has been used by Romanoff to momentarily disable the Winter Soldier's metal arm and the Black Panther suit.

It appeared in the films Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Yaka arrow Edit

The Yaka arrow is a sound-sensitive arrow owned by Yondu Udonta. Made of Yaka metal by the Centaurians, it is controlled by a red fin worn on Yondu's head combined with his whistling, and is carried in a holster on his belt when not in use. His use of the arrow is extremely skilled, allowing him to accurately control its direction and speed, killing multiple aliens within seconds. It is capable of punching through alien armor and even the hull of a spaceship. After Yondu's death, Kraglin acquires the arrow and a new cybernetic head fin, but struggles to control his arrow due to his lack of experience.

It appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.

Artifacts Edit

Book of Cagliostro Edit

The Book of Cagliostro is an ancient spellbook housed in the Ancient One's private library in Kamar-Taj. The book focuses on dark magic, causing many students who studied the book to lose their way. Kaecilius later tears pages out of the book in order to allow him to perform a ritual to contact Dormammu and draw energy from the Dark Dimension, extending his life forever. Stephen Strange also studies the book, learning how to use the Eye of Agamotto, and then using said artifact to restore the pages Kaecilius tore out.

It appeared in the film Doctor Strange.

Casket of Ancient Winters Edit

The Casket of Ancient Winters was a relic and weapon owned and used by the Jotunns ("Frost Giants"). When opened, it projects an icy wind that freezes everything in its path, and is capable of plunging an entire planet into a new ice age. The Casket was captured in 965 AD by the Æsir as part of a campaign to prevent them conquering the Nine Realms, and stored in the vault. Over a millennium later, Frost Giants attacked Asgard, seeking to reclaim the Casket, but were again defeated. When Hela returned years later, she passed by the Casket in Odin's vault, calling it "weak". It was presumably destroyed during Ragnarok.

It appeared in the films Thor and Thor: Ragnarok.

Cloak of Levitation Edit

The Cloak of Levitation is a magical relic that is enables its user to levitate in the air. One of the many relics owned by the Masters of the Mystic Arts are originally stored in the New York Sanctum, it "chooses" Stephen Strange as its master during a fight with Kaecilius. It has a consciousness of its own and is able to move independently and defend Strange against threats. When Strange is rendered unconscious during a battle with Ebony Maw during the Infinity War, the Cloak attempts to fly him to safety. After Strange is recaptured by Maw, it leaves him until Tony Stark and Peter Parker successfully rescue its master and kill Maw. During the Battle of Titan, the Cloak wraps itself around the Infinity Gauntlet to prevent Thanos from closing his fist and using the Infinity Stones he collected. However, Thanos rips it off before defeating the other heroes on the planet, and teleports away. The Cloak vanishes along with Strange after Thanos snaps his fingers and erases half of all life in the universe during the Blip, but is restored by the Hulk and remains on Strange's back during the Battle of Earth.

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Darkhold Edit

The Darkhold, also known as the Book of the Damned, is a magical grimoire previously owned by Agatha Harkness, who uses it to determine that Wanda Maximoff is the Scarlet Witch. After defeating Harkness, Maximoff takes the book to study whilst in hiding. Made out of dark matter from the Dark Dimension, it constantly burns with magical fire.

It appeared in the Disney+ series WandaVision. A seemingly different version appeared in the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., and the Hulu series Runaways.

Eternal Flame Edit

The Eternal Flame is an unextinguishable mystical flame. It serves as the source of Surtur's full power. This allows him to be summoned or even resurrected by placing his crown into it, thus unleashing Ragnarok. For this reason, Odin stole it from Muspelheim, and stored it in his vault. Hela, after she returns, uses it to resurrect Fenris and her army, using them to take over Asgard. After Thor returns from Sakaar, he sends Loki to place Surtur's crown in the Flame, resurrecting him and destroying Asgard and Hela.

It appeared in the film Thor: Ragnarok.

Sling Rings Edit

Sling Rings are small two-ring mystical artifacts used by the Masters of the Mystic Arts to teleport between different locations via an interdimensional portal. [74]

They appeared in the films Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Infinity Stones Edit

The Infinity Stones were cosmic items with great power, formed at the creation of the universe. Each Stone controls a separate aspect of the universe, and together, according to the Ancient One, "create what [we] perceive as the flow of time" meaning that their absence would cause chaos. When gathered together, their immense cosmic power can be used to alter the whole universe, such as Thanos using them to initiate the Blip. They were eventually "reduced to atoms" by Thanos, using their own power. However, as he simply reduced them to dust, they continue to control the universe. Versions of each of the Stones were retrieved from the past during the Time Heist and used to undo the Decimation. Steve Rogers then returned them to the past.

They appeared in the films Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Guardians of the Galaxy, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Disney+ series WandaVision and Loki.

Space Stone Edit

The Space Stone, originally housed in the Tesseract, was the Infinity Stone that controlled the aspect of space. It gives the user the ability to open wormholes, and to travel between places instantaneously. The Space Stone can also open wormholes of its own accord, as seen when it transports Johann Schmitt to Vormir as punishment for misusing it. The enormous amount of raw energy generated by the Stone in its Tesseract form is used by the Asgardians to repair the Bifrost Bridge, Hydra and S.H.I.E.L.D. to power weapons, and by S.H.I.E.L.D.'s Project P.E.G.A.S.U.S. to develop light-speed engines. The explosion of the latter grants Carol Danvers her powers. The Tesseract is crushed by Thanos when extracting the Stone.

It appeared in the films Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki.

Mind Stone Edit

The Mind Stone, originally housed in Loki's scepter and later on Vision's forehead, was the Infinity Stone that controlled the aspect of the mind. It gives the user the ability to control minds, enhance intelligence, and give sentience to beings. The Stone is also able to project energy blasts, and contains an artificial intelligence that can make androids sentient, such as Ultron and J.A.R.V.I.S., the latter of which became the Vision. Exposure to the Mind Stone also granted Pietro Maximoff super-speed powers, and greatly enhanced Wanda's innate magical abilities, turning her into the Scarlet Witch. Her connection to the Stone also allows her to create a simulacrum of Vision, and two sons, Billy and Tommy.

It appeared in the films The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Disney+ series WandaVision and Loki.

Reality Stone Edit

The Reality Stone, originally in the form of the Aether, was the Infinity Stone that controlled the aspect of reality. It first appears in a fluid-like state, and is known as the Aether. It grants the user the ability to change reality, create illusions, suck the life force out of mortals, disrupt the laws of physics and repel any threats that it detects.

It appeared in the films Thor: The Dark World, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki.

Power Stone Edit

The Power Stone, originally housed in the Orb and later in Ronan's Cosmi-Rod, was the Infinity Stone that controlled the aspect of raw power. It gives the user vastly increased strength, telekinesis, and increases the power of anything it is housed in (such as Ronan's Cosmi-Rod). However, it is extremely powerful and unstable, causing explosions if not handled properly, and disintegrating those not powerful enough to handle it.

It appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki.

Time Stone Edit

The Time Stone, originally housed in the Eye of Agamotto, was the Infinity Stone that controlled the aspect of time. It gives the user the ability to manipulate time, control probabilities, and see into future timelines and possible events. Doctor Strange uses it reverse time around objects, and to create a time loop around himself, allowing him to come back every time he is killed by Dormammu. Thanos also uses it to turn back time around the Vision, allowing hin to take the Mind Stone.

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki.

Soul Stone Edit

The Soul Stone, originally located on the planet Vormir, was the Infinity Stone that controlled the aspect of the soul. It gives the user the ability to manipulate living souls. It also contains a pocket dimension called the Soul World, where one will meet someone close to them after using the Stone. Uniquely, it has a guard over its location, the Stonekeeper, who guides those through the ritual required to gain it—swapping a soul for it, via a sacrifice.

It appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki.

Magic Edit

Asgardian magic Edit

Asgardian magic is a type of magic that is practiced by Asgardian sorcerers such as Loki, Frigga, Odin, and Heimdall. This form of magic has many colors with Loki's magic being a bright green and Thor's being lightning based.

It appeared in the films Thor, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Chaos magic Edit

Chaos magic is an extremely powerful and rare form of magic that gives the user the ability to alter reality, wielded by Wanda Maximoff, thus making her the Scarlet Witch, a being once thought to be mythical. This form of magic's primary color is red mixed with white and black hues.

It appeared in the Disney+ series WandaVision.

Dark magic Edit

Dark magic is a type of magic that is practiced by Agatha Harkness, Kaecilius and his Zealots, the Ancient One, Odin, and Heimdall. This form of magic's primary color is purple.

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange and Avengers: Infinity War as well as the Disney+ series WandaVision.

Eldritch magic Edit

Eldritch magic [75] is a type of magic that is practiced by the Masters of the Mystic Arts on Earth (including Stephen Strange, Wong, Karl Mordo, Kaecilius, the Ancient One, and Jonathan Pangborn) as well as other beings in the Universe, such as the Ravager sorcerer Krugarr. It is a light-based magic that produces sparks and fiery energy of a yellow or orange color that gives off light and warmth.

It appeared in the films Doctor Strange, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

Artificial Intelligences Edit

E.D.I.T.H. Edit

E.D.I.T.H. (voiced by Dawn Michelle King), which stands for Even Dead, I'm the Hero, is an advanced augmented reality artificial intelligence with numerous security, defense and tactical abilities that was created by Tony Stark and built into his pair of sunglasses. Following his death, the sunglasses were handed over to Peter Parker, giving him access to the AI as well as Stark Industries' large arsenal of missiles and weaponized drones.

It appeared in the film Spider-Man: Far From Home.

F.R.I.D.A.Y. Edit

F.R.I.D.A.Y. (voiced by Kerry Condon) is a natural-language user interface created by Tony Stark to operate his armor. It served as a replacement for J.A.R.V.I.S. after it was seemingly destroyed by Ultron.

It appeared in the films Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame.

J.A.R.V.I.S. Edit

J.A.R.V.I.S. (voiced by Paul Bettany) was a complex artificial intelligence matrix created by Tony Stark that was named after his father's butler, Edwin Jarvis. It was used by Stark to operate his technology, his mansion, Avengers Tower, and his company. [76] While he is eventually destroyed by Ultron, his operational matrix was later uploaded by Stark and Bruce Banner into a new body, becoming the Vision. [77] According to the novelization of the film, the acronym stands for Just A Rather Very Intelligent System. [78] J.A.R.V.I.S. was an original creation by Mike Fergus, Hawk Ostby, Art Marcum and Matt Holloway based on the fictional butler, Edwin Jarvis, by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, who also appears in Agent Carter [79] and Avengers: Endgame. The character was first introduced in the film, Iron Man. [80] J.A.R.V.I.S. later features as the voice within the suit to Tony. It is destroyed by Ultron, but its operational matrix is later uploaded into a new body, becoming Vision. [81]

It appeared in the films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, and Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Karen Edit

Karen (voiced by Jennifer Connelly), initially called "Suit Lady", is the name given by Peter Parker for the natural-language user interface created by Tony Stark that was embedded in his second Spider-Man suit. [82] Originally hidden until Parker had completed the Training Wheels Protocol, Karen was eventually unlocked by Ned Leeds after he hacked into the suit and gained access to the AI. In 2024, following the attacks by Mysterio in Europe, Karen was presumably destroyed along with the second Spider-Man suit.

It appeared in the film Spider-Man: Homecoming.

Griot Edit

Griot (voiced by Trevor Noah) [83] [84] is Shuri's artificial intelligence. The name 'Griot' is a West African term for a historian or storyteller. [85]

It appeared in the film Black Panther.

Supreme Intelligence Edit

The Supreme Intelligence (portrayed by Annette Bening in the form of Mar-Vell) is an artificial intelligence that is the ruler of the Kree. [86] [87] The Supreme Intelligence takes the physical form of the individual most respected by whomever is speaking to it. To Vers, it takes the form of Dr. Wendy Lawson, though Vers was initially unaware of who Lawson is due to her amnesia. [88] Vers speaks to the Supreme Intelligence shortly before a mission to extract an undercover Kree operative, where it recommends to keep her emotions in check. A deleted scene had the Supreme Intelligence assuming the form of Yon-Rogg when scolding Yon-Rogg for what happened to Mar-Vell. When Yon-Rogg states of dealing with Danvers, the Supreme Intelligence informs Yon-Rogg to bring Danvers in alive so that it can deal with the problem. [89] In 1995, the Supreme Intelligence ordered Vers to journey to the planet Torfa is order to extract an undercover Kree operative, but the mission backfired and Vers was captured by the Skrulls. After Vers recovered her memories and learned of her true identity (Carol Danvers), she fought the Supreme Intelligence before defeating the Starforce. She also shorts out the implant that limits her abilities. Upon defeating Yon-Rogg, Danvers sends Yon-Rogg back to Hala to carry a warning to the Supreme Intelligence.

It appeared in the film Captain Marvel.

Elements Edit

Uru Edit

Uru is a metal used by the Dwarves to forge the weapons Mjolnir and Stormbreaker, as well as the Infinity Gauntlet. It has magical properties and can conduct lightning. The metal is forged in the furnaces of Nidavellir as it is so powerful that only the heat of a dying star can melt it.

It appeared in the films Iron Man 2, Thor, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

Vibranium Edit

Vibranium is a metal used to create Captain America's shield, the Black Panther suit, the Vision, Sam Wilson's Captain America suit and the White Wolf's cybernetic arm. It came from a meteorite collision with Earth and is regarded as the strongest metal in the world. It is stronger than steel and a third of the weight, as well as totally vibration-absorbant. [90] The Wakandans originally hid it for years, and it thus became rare and extremely expensive, allowing vibranium smugglers such as Ulysses Klaue to make billions of dollars. Vibranium is also shown to be bulletproof to most high calibre bullets. [90] It is also absorbent of kinetic energy, and can deflect high-energy blasts such as those from Iron Man's armor or Mjolnir. [91] Its main source is Mount Bashenga in Wakanda.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Disney+ series WandaVision, The Falcon and the Winter Soldier, and Loki (archival footage).

Projects and protocols Edit

Avengers Initiative Edit

The Avengers Initiative, originally known as the Protector Initiative, is the initiative for gathering a group of superheroes from various backgrounds, described as "a group of remarkable people", into the Avengers, in order to protect Earth from various threats and "become something more". It was initiated by Nick Fury in the 1990s, and was renamed in honor of Carol Danvers' call sign, 'Avenger'. However, members weren't recruited until 2010. Fury directed Natasha Romanoff to measure Tony Stark's suitability for the initiative, although Stark was initially rejected, and used only as an advisor. Fury also recruited the likes of Steve Rogers, Bruce Banner, and two S.H.I.E.L.D. agents, Clint Barton and Natasha Romanoff.

It appeared in the films Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, and Captain Marvel.

Cataract Edit

Cataract was a project conducted by S.W.O.R.D. with the goal of reactivating the Vision as a "sentient weapon" following his death at the hands of Thanos during the Infinity War. Under Acting Director Tyler Hayward's orders, S.W.O.R.D. acquired the Vision's body following the Battle of Wakanda and dismantled it, hoping to study its components and rebuild it. Though initially unsuccessful, S.W.O.R.D. successfully used the energy collected from Wanda Maximoff on a Stark Industries drone to reactivate the Vision, turning his body white in the process.

It appeared in the Disney+ series WandaVision.

Project Insight Edit

Project Insight was a secret S.H.I.E.L.D. operation that was started as a direct response to the Battle of New York. It involved three advanced Helicarriers that would patrol Earth, using an algorithm to evaluated people's behaviour to detect possible future threats, and use satellite-guided guns to eliminate those individuals. The project was led by Alexander Pierce, who, unknown to Fury, was a Hydra mole who intended to use Insight as a means of eliminating individuals who posed a threat to Hydra, such as Matthew Ellis, Stephen Strange (at that point still a surgeon), and Maria Hill. The Project was abandoned after the Helicarriers were destroyed, Hydra exposed, and S.H.I.E.L.D. collapsed.

It appeared in the film Captain America: The Winter Soldier as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D..

Project Pegasus Edit

Project Pegasus was a joint project between S.H.I.E.L.D., NASA, and the United States Air Force to study the Tesseract. [92] It was reactivated by the World Security Council following an alien attack in Puente Antiguo, New Mexico, until it was terminated after Thor took the Tesseract back to Asgard following the Battle of New York.

It appeared in the films Thor, The Avengers, and Captain Marvel.

Project Rebirth Edit

Project Rebirth, also known as the Super Soldier Program, was a collaboration between U.S., British and German scientists led by Dr. Abraham Erskine under the supervision of Peggy Carter, Howard Stark and Chester Phillips. The aim was to enhance a human to perfection. The first successful test led to the creation of Captain America by enhancing the sickly young man Steve Rogers. The project was abandoned after the murder of Erskine by Hydra, leaving Rogers as the only super-soldier. Efforts to recreate the formulas were tested on Black soldiers, with Isaiah Bradley ending as the only survivor due to the others' bodies rejecting the treatment. Further efforts to recreate the serum from old Weapons Plus stocks, replacing Vita rays with gamma rays resulted in the Hulk (Bruce Banner).

It appeared in the film Captain America: The First Avenger.

Red Room Edit

The Red Room, also known as the Black Widow Program, is a top-secret Soviet (and later Russian) training program. The program takes young women and turns them into "Black Widows"—elite assassins. During Natasha Romanoff's time there, it was run by a woman named "Madame B.". Graduates of the program include Natasha Romanoff, Yelena Belova, and Melina Vostokoff.

It appeared in the film Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Sokovia Accords Edit

The Sokovia Accords are a group of legislative documents ratified by the United Nations, with the support of 117 countries, following the Battle of Sokovia. They establish UN oversight over the Avengers, and were supported by Tony Stark, James Rhodes, Vision, T'Challa and initially by Natasha Romanoff, and are opposed primarily by Steve Rogers and Sam Wilson, causing division amongst the Avengers.

They appeared in the film Captain America: Civil War as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D..

Ultron Program Edit

The Ultron Program was an attempt by Tony Stark and Bruce Banner to create an artificial intelligence, "Ultron", as a means of protecting the world against incoming extraterrestrial threats, such as the Chitauri, which Stark feared would return, via suits of powered armor. The program was, however, a failure, with the program becoming sentient due to the Mind Stone. This resulted in the creation of the genocidal android Ultron, who sought to wipe out human life. Stark later confronted Rogers about not supporting the plan due to Rogers' fears of increased surveillance, following Thanos' initiation of the Blip.

It appeared in the film Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Winter Soldier Program Edit

The Winter Soldier Program was a top secret Hydra program started by Nazi scientist Dr. Arnim Zola in the 1940s. It took soldiers, brainwashed them, and enhanced them with a recreation of the super-soldier serum, turning them into a deadly assassins known as "Winter Soldiers", who were kept in cyrostasis whilst not on a mission. Each soldier had a set of codewords, recorded in the Winter Soldier Book, which, when recited to a Winter Soldier, would make them completely obedient to that person. The Winter Soldiers, with the exception of Bucky Barnes, were later executed by Baron Zemo.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Captain America: Civil War.

Substances Edit

Heart-shaped herb Edit

The Heart-shaped herb is a Wakandan plant enriched through exposure to vibranium, giving it a glowing purple color. It is ingested in a ceremony by the new Black Panther, granting them peak human powers in a similar way to the Super Soldier Serum. It also allows for the communication with the dead in the Ancestral Plane upon ingestion. After becoming King of Wakanda, N'Jadaka / Killmonger himself ingests it, and orders the rest of the stocks to be incinerated. One is extracted by Nakia, who uses it to heal T'Challa, allowing him to return and defeat N'Jadaka.

It appeared in the film Black Panther.

Pym Particles Edit

Pym Particles are extradimensional subatomic particles capable of reducing or increasing the gaps between atoms, allowing the user to shrink or grow. They appear in the form of a liquid, contained in small vials. They appear red when used to shrink, and blue when used to grow. The particles also power Pym Discs, weapons stored in the Ant-Man suit's belt that, when launched at a target, shrink it or enlarge it. They are used to aid time travel via the Quantum Realm for the Time Heist. Captain America later steals four vials from 1970 Hank Pym's lab, to allow him to continue time travelling and complete the mission.

They appeared in the films Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame.

Super Soldier Serum Edit

The Super Soldier Serum is a serum used to enhance humans to the peak of human perfection. It was developed by Abraham Erskine and was first given to Johann Schmitt, enhancing his abilities, but deforming his face. A perfected version was later given to the sickly Steve Rogers, along with vita rays to activate it. However, Erskine was killed soon after, meaning that Steve remained the only American superhuman. Several versions of the serum were later created with varying degrees of success. A key feature of the serum is that it enhances personality as well as strength, amplifying both good and evil. Hydra used a version of the serum to enhance Bucky Barnes into the Winter Soldier in the Winter Soldier Program, and later used variants of the serum taken from Howard Stark after his assassination to enhance other assassins, although they were made mentally unstable by the serum and had to be killed. A version of the serum was also given to Isaiah Bradley by the U.S. government during the Cold War, allowing him to confront and defeat the Winter Soldier in combat. Bruce Banner tried to replicate the serum using gamma radiation as a substitute for vita radiation, turning him into the Hulk, whilst a more successful version of the serum was later given to Emil Blonsky by the U.S. government. Later the 'Power Broker' had several replicants of the serum made by a former Hydra scientist, although they were stolen by Karli Morgenthau and given to the Flag Smashers. This version of the serum did not require vita radiation or "clunky machines", and does not visibly enhance the body, although the subject gains superhuman abilities all the same. Baron Zemo destroys all but one of the vials, which is taken by John Walker, the new Captain America.

It appeared in the films The Incredible Hulk, Captain America: The First Avenger, and Captain America: Civil War as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Vita radiation Edit

Vita radiation is a type of electromagnetic radiation that has stabilizing properties. For this purpose, it was used to activate the properties of the Super Soldier Serum in Steve Rogers via a Vita Radiation Chamber in the form of Vita rays. It is found to be present in Nitramene, an explosive developed by Howard Stark. Like the original serum's formula, the Vita ray formula was lost when Dr. Abraham Erskine was killed. Attempts to recreate the formula without the rays resulted mostly in disaster—Johann Schmidt's face was disfigured, leading him to become the Red Skull while Bruce Banner's attempts to replace Vita radiation with gamma radiation resulted in him transforming into the Hulk.

It appeared in the film Captain America: The First Avenger as well as the ABC series Agent Carter.

Technologies Edit

Arc Reactor Edit

The Arc Reactor is an energy source originally designed by Howard Stark and Anton Vanko, and later independently built by their sons, Tony and Ivan. It was initially designed as part of an attempt to replicate the Tesseract's energy based on Howard's study of the object. Tony Stark eventually builds two versions—a large industrial reactor for powering his machines at the Stark Industries Headquarters, and a miniature version embedded in his chest to power his armor (also known as an RT) and prevent the shrapnel from reaching his heart. The first miniature version used a palladium core, although he later synthesises a new element when the palladium begins to poison him. He continues to develop the reactor throughout the years (even after the shrapnel is removed from his body), with the final version containing the nanobots that make up his suit. Ivan Vanko and James Rhodes also utilize versions of the Arc Reactors in their suits.

It appeared in the films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

B.A.R.F. Edit

Binarily Augmented Retro-Framing, better known by its acronym B.A.R.F., is holographic technology created by Quentin Beck, Stark Industries holographic-illusions specialist. However, despite Beck's claims that it could "change the world", Stark refused to use it for anything other than therapeutics, despite it costing $611,000,000 to develop. He also gave the technology its deliberately humorous name, humiliating and disgusting Beck. After he was fired for his unstable nature, Beck further developed the technology, using drones equipped with projectors to create large monsters known as Elementals, which he then "defeats". He also gains control of E.D.I.T.H., allowing him to make even more elaborate illusions via the Stark satellites.

It appeared in the films Captain America: Civil War and Spider-Man: Far From Home.

Dum-E Edit

Dum-E is Tony Stark's automated hydraulic arm. Built by a young Stark in his father Howard's garage, it acts as his workshop assistant, and often 'hands' him things, such as bringing his Arc Reactor when Stark was unable to reach it due to having his previous one stolen by Obadiah Stane. However, Dum-E has also often been of annoyance to Stark. [93]

It appeared in the films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Iron Man 3, Spider-Man: Homecoming, and Avengers: Endgame.

Kimoyo Beads Edit

Kimoyo Beads are an advanced piece of technology developed by Shuri and used in Wakanda. They are made to serve a vast range of purposes according to the needs of the wearer, such as deprogramming Bucky Barnes.

It appeared in the films Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Nick Fury's pager Edit

Nick Fury's pager is a pager modified by Carol Danvers that she gave to Nick Fury before leaving Earth. It is able to contact her no matter where she is in the galaxy, although he is only to use it in the event of an emergency. Nick Fury first uses it upon seeing people in the streets, including Maria Hill, disintegrate. He disintegrates himself shortly afterwards. The signal reaches Danvers, who returns to Earth, meeting the remaining Avengers who are monitoring the device.

It appeared in the films Avengers: Infinity War and Captain Marvel.

Quantum Tunnel Edit

The Quantum Tunnel is an inter-dimensional gateway designed by Hank Pym, Bill Foster, and Elihas Starr to transport individuals to and from the Quantum Realm. Six versions of the tunnel have been created over time: the first incarnation was built by Pym, Foster, and Starr but was destroyed in an explosion a second version of the tunnel was used by Pym and Hope van Dyne to rescue Janet van Dyne from the Quantum Realm a third version was placed inside Luis' van and used to send Scott Lang into the Quantum Realm in order to acquire quantum energy to heal Ava Starr a fourth tunnel was used by the Avengers to travel back in time in order to collect the six Infinity Stones in alternate timelines a fifth was created shortly after the Battle of Earth by Bruce Banner to send Steve Rogers back in time in order to return the Infinity Stones and Mjolnir back to their respective timelines and a sixth tunnel was used by Leo Fitz, Jemma Simmons, and Enoch to travel across different timelines.

It appeared in the films Ant-Man and the Wasp and Avengers: Endgame as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D..

Redwing Edit

Redwing, officially designated the Stark Drone MK82 922 V 80Z V2 Prototype Unit V6, [94] is a high-tech drone used in combat and reconnaissance by Sam Wilson during his missions as the Falcon, and later as Captain America. It is originally designed by Stark Industries after Wilson joins the Avengers, and is equipped into his EXO-7 Falcon suit. In 2023, Wilson acquired a new version of the drone along with a new combat suit. Wilson's companion Bucky Barnes expresses a dislike for this device. This version is destroyed by the Flag Smashers around six months later. Wilson later uses a new version along with his uniform as Captain America, designed in Wakanda.

It appeared in the films Captain America: Civil War and Avengers: Infinity War as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier.

Regeneration Cradle Edit

The Regeneration Cradle is a piece of medical equipment created by Dr. Helen Cho that is able to heal serious injuries by grafting artificial tissue onto them. Clint Barton's life is successfully saved through this treatment. Ultron later brainwashes Dr. Cho using Loki's scepter into grafting the tissue to the Mind Stone and vibranium, in order to create a new body for himself. The Avengers intervene, and with Thor's help, the new body is awoken, being dubbed 'The Vision'.

It appeared in the film Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Tony Stark's glasses Edit

Tony Stark's glasses are a pair of technologically advanced sunglasses created by him. They are able to polarise, and contain his AI F.R.I.D.A.Y.. After his death, F.R.I.D.A.Y. is replaced by E.D.I.T.H., passing into the hands of Peter Parker. Parker passes them on to Quentin Beck, who uses them to better control his illusions. Peter later regains them.

They appeared in the films Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, and Spider-Man: Far From Home.

Universal Neural Teleportation Network Edit

The Universal Neural Teleportation Network [95] is the universal system for space travel. The system enables spaceships to travel through hexagonal-shaped wormholes known as jump points in order to "jump" between planetary systems. According to Yondu, it is not healthy for a mammalian lifeform to go through more than fifty jumps at once, which will result in extreme discomfort and temporary disfigurement for those on board.

It appeared in the films Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, and Avengers: Endgame.

Others Edit

Bifrost Edit

The Bifrost Bridge, often simply referred to as the Bifrost, is an energy that allows for near-instantaneous travel via a wormhole, used primarily for travel within the Nine Realms. It was used by the Asgardians, who harnessed the energy using the Rainbow Bridge, which connected to Himinbjorg, the Bifrost generator. The Bifrost, if concentrated enough, can destroy the planet that it is aimed at. Loki intends to use this to destroy Jotunheim, proving himself worthy of the throne to Odin. To this end, he uses the Casket of Ancient Winters to freeze Heimdall, the protector of the Bifrost, allowing him to open the Bifrost. However, Thor destroys the Rainbow Bridge with his hammer, preventing Himinbjorg from drawing more energy and generating the Bifrost, making it more difficult for Asgardians to use it. After the Battle of New York, Thor returns to Asgard with the Tesseract, giving it to Heimdall, who used its power to repair the bridge, allowing the Bifrost to be generated again.

The energy can also be generated through dark magic, with Heimdall able to channel it through his sword, Hofund. He demonstrates this ability during the attack on the Statesman, sending the Hulk to Earth after channelling enough dark energy. Stormbreaker, Thor's new weapon, is also able to generate the Bifrost, allowing Thor to travel across the universe at will.

It appeared in the films Thor, Thor: The Dark World, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, and Avengers: Infinity War as well as the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Disney+ series Loki.

Contest of Champions Edit

The Contest of Champions is a gladiator tournament held on Sakaar by the Grandmaster, the ruler. The planet is surrounded by wormholes, meaning that spaceships from all over the galaxy end up on the planet, with the passengers forced into becoming gladiators. The Grandmaster's tower displays models of the heads of past champions, including the Hulk, who becomes a gladiator after leaving Earth in a Quinjet, and passing through a wormhole to Sakaar. Other gladiators include Thor, who lands on the planet after escaping Hela's invasion of Asgard Korg, Miek, and Scrapper 142 (the last of the Valkyrior). Heads resembling Man-Thing, Ares, Bi-Beast, Dark-Crawler, Fin Fang Foom, and Beta Ray Bill also appear on the tower. Loki lands on the planet with Thor, but is able to ingratiate himself with the Grandmaster, and watches the games from his private box. Thor later leads a rebellion of gladiators, and the Grandmaster is overthrown.

It appeared in the film Thor: Ragnarok.

Elementals Edit

The Elementals were a series of illusions created by the use of projectors and drones utilized by Quentin Beck to wreak havoc across the world. To mask their nature, Beck claimed that the Elementals were superpowered entities from Earth-833 that emerged from an inter-dimensional rift caused by the Snap. This iteration consists of the Wind, Earth, Fire, and Water Elemental who are modeled after Cyclone, Sandman, Molten Man, and Hydro-Man respectively. [96] Quentin Beck, operating under the guise of Mysterio, claimed that they were born in a black hole and ravaged his reality of Earth-833. After Mysterio defeated the Wind and Earth Elementals off-screen, he went on to fight the Water Elemental in Venice while Nick Fury and Maria Hill persuaded Spider-Man to help Mysterio defeat the Fire Elemental in Prague. After finding a holographic projector however, Spider-Man and his girlfriend MJ discovered that they were drones equipped with holographic technology, which Beck and a team of ex-Stark Industries employees used to make himself look like an Avengers-level hero. When Beck learned of their discovery, he had his accomplices create an Elemental Fusion monster to distract the world while he set out to kill them. His plan was foiled when Spider-Man got into the illusion and deactivated the drones creating it before defeating Beck.

They appeared in the film Spider-Man: Far From Home.

Hex Edit

The Hex, also referred to as the Westview anomaly or Maximoff anomaly, was a telekinetic boundary around the town of Westview, New Jersey, created by Wanda Maximoff. The boundary could be unilaterally expanded by Maximoff to incorporate surrounding areas, warping reality and transforming objects and people on a molecular level, morphing the S.W.O.R.D. space rovers into circus vehicles, and morphing S.W.O.R.D. agents into clowns. Monica Rambeau gained superhuman abilities after passing through the barrier three times. The boundary was also what allowed Billy and Tommy Maximoff, as well as Wanda Maximoff's incarnation of the Vision, to exist. Upon leaving the boundary, "Vision" began to disintegrate. Billy, having inherited his mother's powers, was able to sense this, warning Wanda, who expanded the Hex, saving him. It was eventually removed by Maximoff after attacks from Agatha Harkness and pressure from the residents of Westview. Wanda retained the barrier around her home long enough to bid Vision and her children farewell, before letting it close in on them.

It appeared in the Disney+ series WandaVision.

Killmonger's scars Edit

Killmonger's scars are a series of around 3000 self-inflicted "crocodile scars" covering Erik "Killmonger" Stevens' body. Each one represents a confirmed kill from his time as an American black ops Navy SEAL. The scars are intended to resemble the scar tattoos of the Mursi and Surma tribes, [97] and consisted of 90 individually sculpted silicone molds that took two-and-a-half hours to apply. [98] Michael B. Jordan, who portrays Killmonger, would have to sit in a sauna for two hours at the end of the day to remove the prosthetics. [99]

They appeared in the film Black Panther.

Miss Minutes Edit

Miss Minutes (voiced by Tara Strong) [100] is the animated mascot of the Time Variance Authority (TVA) which takes the appearance of a female anthropomorphic clock with a southern accent. [101] Her design was inspired by Felix the Cat, Roger Rabbit, as well as other cartoon characters from the early 20th century. [102] Upon the release of a poster featuring Miss Minutes in anticipation for the Disney+ series Loki, many commentators believed that the character would be especially popular among viewers, drawing comparisons to Baby Yoda. [103] [104]

It appeared in the Disney+ series Loki.

Steve Rogers' compass Edit

Steve Rogers' compass is a lensatic compass carried everywhere by Steve Rogers. The lid contains a picture of Peggy Carter, taken from a newspaper, which he views when he believes he is about to die, such as when he crashes the Valkyrie into the Arctic, or before he travels to the Garden to kill Thanos with the other Avengers.

It appeared in the films Captain America: The First Avenger, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, and Avengers: Endgame.

WandaVision Edit

WandaVision was a sitcom broadcast by Wanda Maximoff in the Westview anomaly using her Chaos Magic abilities. Set in the town of Westview, New Jersey, the sitcom centered on Wanda Maximoff's family, which included the Vision, Billy Maximoff, and Tommy Maximoff. It also 'starred' Agatha Harkness as Agnes, Ralph Bohner as Pietro Maximoff, Monica Rambeau as Geraldine, Todd and Sharon Davis as Arthur and Mrs. Hart, Abilash Tandon as Norm, Harold and Sarah Proctor as Phil and Dottie Jones, John Collins as Herb, Isabel Matsueda as Beverly, an unknown actor as Dennis, and Darcy Lewis as an unnamed character. The show was ultimately "cancelled" by Wanda (as described by Tyler Hayward) after her actions were discovered by the Vision and S.W.O.R.D. and she expanded the Hex in order to save the Vision's life.

It appeared in the Disney+ series WandaVision.

Winter Soldier Book Edit

The Winter Soldier Book is a book formerly used by Hydra, containing Russian trigger words that would activate their Winter Soldiers into deadly assassins when spoken. It was later discovered by Helmut Zemo and used to activate Barnes into the Winter Soldier once again, using the words from the book: "Longing, rusted, seventeen, daybreak, furnace, nine, benign, homecoming, one, freight car". [a] The trigger words' effect is eventually nullified after Barnes is healed in Wakanda.


Paleolithic to Yayoi period

Early exchange

PaleolithicからJomon PeriodUp toobsidianWas carried by the Maruki boat and became an item for long-distance trade. PresentSagaObsidian produced from the areaBusanHas been excavated because it is in [1] .新石器時代The pottery of the Korean Peninsula isTsushima,IkiHave been discovered from. In the early Jomon period, 7000 years ago, fishing people were moving across the straits in northern Kyushu and southern Korea. In the southern part of the Korean PeninsulaJomon potteryHave been discovered in the Japanese archipelago from Tsushima, Iki, northern Kyushu and the Korean Peninsula.Comb eyesThere were fishhooks and Chinese earrings. Such exchanges were carried out while temporarily stopping by the coast during fishing. After the Stone Age, people will cross the sea in search of metal tools on the Korean Peninsula. [2] .

Arrival of agricultural products

Rice paddy cultivation started in the Yangtze River basin of China 7000 years ago, and the route that came to Japan is largely divided into the route of the Korean Peninsula, the direct route from the continent, and the route of the Nansei Islands. [3] .. As a study of the route of rice cultivation,RiceResearch on genes, research on agricultural tools and rituals from excavated items from various archeological sites, and research on hydroponics remains. Japan and the Korean Peninsula,Liaodong PeninsulaThe rice that exists in Far East Asia, such as Japan, is roughly divided into two types: temperate japonica and tropical japonica. [4] .. In AomoriTakahashi III RuinsAnd Shiga prefectureShimonogo RuinsIncludingYayoi PeriodBoth temperate and tropical were found in the ruins of.DNA of native rice varietiesNuclear SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) MethodAccording to the results analyzed in, the arrival from the continent was recognized in both the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. [5] . in JapanRice cultivationWhen was started10th century BCIn the latter half, the place is from the Genkai Sea coast of Kitakyushu,Nabata SiteAnd in FukuokaItatsuki RuinsIs said to be the oldest. There are three large-scale migrations, which are dated to the 3th-7th century BC, the 8th-4th century BC, and the 5nd-2rd century BC. It is known that there were some species from the Korean Peninsula via Iki and some from the continent directly to northern Kyushu. [3] [6] .

Establishment of a country

From the latter half of the Yayoi period, exchanges with the Korean Peninsula became active. In northern Kyushu and southern KoreaSea peopleIs active on the coast and on the islands, and powers obtained bronze and ironware from the seamen. In the Yayoi period, it was possible to navigate by a fleet of semi-structured ships in place of the Maruki boat, and the amount of materials to carry increased. [1] .. The network of sea villages made the sea routes tighter, and countries were established. With advance from continent,Emperor Wu TheMamoru KoreaDestroyRakunami-gunWas built and became a region based on the Han system. Earthenware, bronzeware, and ironware were produced in Rakunami-gun, and products from all over China were gathered. Until it was conquered by Goguryeo, Chinese crafts were distributed from Rakunami-gun to the Korean Peninsula and Waikoku, and the technology was handed down. The route connecting Japan and the Korean Peninsula is the Nakdong RiverNaughty countryAnd in northern KyushuHis country,ItoguniTied together. The route from northern country to northern Kyushu via Iki and Tsushima is "Wei Zhajin]. In the time of Yamatai,Great rateHad been dispatched to Itokuni [7] [8] .

Wakoku and the Three Kingdoms of Korea

The Japanese archipelagoKofun periodThe Korean Peninsula around that timeGoguryeoTo the eastSillaIn the westBaekje3 countries line up,Mikuni periodAlso called [† 1] .. Besides the three countries, it is a coalition of small countries in the south.伽耶, In the southwestSakaeyama RiverThere was a basin culture. The Japanese archipelagoYamato kingshipWith a unified governmentGreat treasure lawUntil the completion ofJapanOr, he was self-proclaimed as a Daiwakoku. Until each of the Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula was unified, each country proceeded with its own diplomacy, and the situation changed complicatedly under the influence of China. At first, foreign policy toward the Korean nations was mainly exchanged with Baekje, Gaya and Sakaeyama River culture, but also exchanged with Silla and Koguryo. [9] [10] ..In diplomacy at that timequalityIt uses a system called (instead), and sends people who stay in diplomatic partners to negotiate, and there were frequent quality exchanges between the nations of the Korean Peninsula.In addition to the quality coming from Baekje, a prince from Silla is also dispatched to Wakoku. [11] .. Prior to the formation of a unified government, the Wae countries cooperated with the diplomacy of the Yamato kingship, which is the largest power, or conducted diplomacy by using groups such as travelers on their own. Northern Kyushu and the Seto Inland Sea used two methods, and Harima and Kibi had their own diplomacy. [12] .

In Chinese history books, in addition to “Wei Zhajinjin” and “Kansho”Suisho], [Song Book], [Tribute map], [History of Three Kingdoms] Also describes the relationship between the Japanese Islands and the Korean Peninsula at the time [† 2] [† 3] [† 4] [† 5] [† 6] .. (Koreans related to Japanese people), (Chinese literature related to 倭 ・ 倭 人)

First half of the Three Kingdoms period

In the first half of the Three Kingdoms period, KoguryoManchuriaIt became the largest nation by expanding its territory to. Baekje deepened conflict with Goguryeo, and Silla subordinated to Goguryeo. Baekje, who had been obliged to Goguryeo in the latter half of the 4th century, negotiates with Yao to fight against Goguryeo. In the communication between Wakoku and Baekje, he belonged to Kim Gaya and acted as an intermediary. [13] .. Baekje is laterChinese KingSent a prince as a quality to Wakoku and made a good deal, and Wakoku sent troops to the Korean Peninsula.Wak Koguryo WarBecame. Wakoku attacks Silla, but in KoguryoKotaWas blocked by the rescue of Silla. JapanObikata-gunAlso invaded, but was repelled by Kotaou [14] .

The basin of the Sakaeyama River has a different culture from Baekje, and it had a unique exchange with Wakenoku. There were some people who lived in the peninsula while using materials and advanced technology from the Korean peninsula. A Japanese-style burial mound called is also built along the coast of the Eisan River basin. The Japanese ancient burial mound is built independently in a place overlooking the sea, the sarcophagus resembles northern Kyushu, and many burial items include Japanese weapons, armor, and Baekje ornaments. Therefore, it is possible that Japanese people from the northern part of Kyushu have been buried. In the Sakae River basin, it was once regarded as a grave unique to Waikoku.Front and rear circleWas built between the late 5th century and the early 6th century. Not only is it similar to the burial mounds of Wakoku, but there are also common points such as stone chambers and haniwa-shaped burial items, and there is ongoing debate about the origin of burialees. [15] .. Since the tumulus also shows the social hierarchy and diplomatic relations based on the status and origin, there is also a theory that the politics of China and the Korean Peninsula are involved in the emergence and enlargement of the front and rear tumuli. [16] .. It was a port of call in the morning and the morningOkinoshimaBecame a place of worship for the Yamato kingship during the Three Kingdoms period, and a prayer for maritime traffic was made. [17] .

Second half of the Three Kingdoms period

6st centuryAs Silla became stronger and the territory of Goguryeo was shaved, Goguryeo formed a friendly relationship with Baekje and Wagokoku.Emperor Keitai TheOtomo KanemurabyNinaProviding support to Baekje, including the sale of four prefectures,Omi KenoIn order to defend Gaya, he ordered a troop dispatch to the Korean Peninsula, but in KyushuChikushi KokuzoIsChikushi IwaiBy the rebellion ofIwai no RanI awoke and gave up. At that time, the Wakoku state had a conflict between the Yamato royal power and the Australian clan over the interests of diplomatic rights and trade with the Korean Peninsula.Kibi's RebellionAnd Iwai's rebellion is also included in this [18] [19] .. The Iwai RebellionMonobe KurakaAlthough suppressed by, the troops were canceled and Silla annexed the entire area of ​​Gaya. [20] .. The Imperial Court, which suppressed the Iwai rebellion, promoted the unification of diplomacy,NatsuBuild a diplomatic facility in. This later became the prototype of Konokan. [21] .

The Yamato kingship defeats Goguryeo and has a certain power on the Korean Peninsula. Silla also devoted himself to Gaya's tone, and diplomacy was carried out to establish a Waikoku. The three nations of Korea have adopted a foreign policy to strengthen their ties with Japan by communicating Buddhism and continental culture. But,Old morningAt that time, Silla attacked Nina, so Wakoku dispatched Nina relief forces and broke through Silla's five castles.Kurume PrinceWas established as a general, but in Kyushu Prince Kurume was ill and the dispatch was cancelled. [22] .. Relations with Silla deteriorated, and instead, relations with Baekje and Goguryeo were emphasized. [23] .Imperial dynastyAt that time there was a rebellion in Koguryo,SirōAgainst the prime ministerFubun SobunErected the son of the princeTreasure kingWas reported to have been crowned, and the Yamato kingship became more vigilant [24] .

The fall of Baekje and Koguryo and the unification of Silla

The Korean PeninsulaChinese Tang and Silla AllianceWill be unified by the establishment of.Liu Jin gaugeSilla army with the Tang army attacked BaekjeRemainderFall,Philanthropic kingAnd PrinceTakashi BuyeoIs TangLuoyangSent to and destroyed Baekje. Wakoku is in the name of Baekje Revival,Azumi Hirafu,Park City Hata Kuritsu,Abe HirafuSent their army to Korea. In addition, the remains of BaekjeOnomuro FukunobuThe prince of Baekje that was sent as a quality to Wakoku at the request of theYotoyoEscortedEmperor SaimeiSaid that Yotoyo made him the crown of Baekje just before returning to the former Baekje land.Japanese calligraphyIt is recorded in. Wakoku, along with Baekje's army, fought against the Tang and Silla army in Shiramurae (currently Jinjiang, South Korea).Battle of Shiramura RiverThe Wakoku and Baekje forces were defeated. Baekje did not revive, and Wakong completely withdrew from the Korean Peninsula. Goguryeo was militaryly isolated due to the fall of Baekje,Tang Koguryo troopsでTreasure kingThey surrendered to Tang and were destroyed.

Tang is SillaWen Wu KingTheChilin State Government OfficeAppointed the Great Metropolitan Government ofSojuFor trying to rule asTang-Silla WarHappened. When Silla pulled out Tang and unified the Korean Peninsula,EnvoySent to Japan, Silla went to JapanShillaWas dispatched. After that, Silla and Silla will continue for about 150 years with interruptions. The relationship with Silla was important for the envoy, since the expedition of the envoy from Wakoku is along the coast of Silla. As the relation between Wakoku and Silla deteriorated, Wakoku interrupted the sending of Tang Tang after the 7th dispatch, and the 8thGoto IslandsSelect the southern route in the direction and restarted [25] .

Unification of the Korean Peninsula and Japan's Response

The unification of the Korean Peninsula had a great impact on Wakenoku. Many exiles from the destroyed Baekje and Goguryeo traveled to the Japanese archipelago, and Buddhist monks fled from Silla.refugeesAccepted. Exiles from KoguryoKoma-gunThe survivors living in Suruga, Kai, Sagami, Kazusa, Shimosa and Shimono.Musashi countryImmigrated to. Similarly for the Silla peopleShilla-gun(Later Niiza-gun) is given. Emigration also took place in Ueno and Shimono. Became the territory of Koma-gunKoma WakamitsuIs given the surname of a king (Kokishi), and the exile of Baekje isBaekje(Kuradako Nikishi) surname is given,Baekje ShunsetsuProduced a person such as [26] [27] .Emperor HanmuIs the birth mother ofTakano ShinkasaIs the family lineage of Baekje travelers,2001 OfEmperor AkihitoIs related to "Yukari Sakai" byLater).

Due to the defeat of the battle of Shiramurae and the destruction of the alliance Baekje, Tang and Silla were expected to attack the Japanese archipelago.Emperor TenchiAs a soldier in the front line Tsushima, Iki, Kitakyushu for defenseGuardFor contactingSmokePrepared. And to western JapanYamashiroBaekje asylum seekers also cooperated with this project, starting the construction of. Dazaifu’s defense isWater city,Ono CastleIs in charge of, with Ono CastleTongchengAs a Baekje expertMourning FukudomeInstructed the work. Emperor TenchiOmi OtsunomiyaThe reason for moving to the capital is also said to have chosen a location with good transportation for defense. Japan and Silla remained in wartime regime until Tang was attacked by the western vagina and stopped eastward. [28] .

The Yamato royal authority, as well as providing defense, is a diplomatic and trade facility.Chikushikan(Tsukushi no Murotsumi) was installed.DazaifuWhile it had an administrative function, Chikushikan became a facility for envoys to stay, inspect and trade, and was used for exchanges with Tang, Silla and Bohai. [21] .

Bohai/Tora

After Koguryo was destroyed by Tang,BohaiWas founded. Japan formed an alliance with Bohai because Bohai was in conflict with Tang and Silla.Bohai ambassador-Sea ambassadorReplaced. The 34th Ambassador Bohai made a tribute to Japan,Akita Castle, EchizenMatsubara Guest House, Noto countryNoto HospitalAmbassador Bokai also visited. At the beginning, Bohai emphasized political ties with Japan, but trade was emphasized when the relationship between Bohai and Tang improved. [29] [30] [31] .

Japan is,JejuWas established inTaraBetween7st centuryFrom the middleEnvoy・Exchanged Tara Envoys. Later, TataraWandoTogether with become a base for maritime trade [32] .

Ritsuryoku and Silla/Koryo

Establishing a Ritsuryu state

The Taiho Ritsuryoku was enacted in the Japanese archipelago, and the Yamato kingship, which used to call itself "wakuni," came to use "Japan." Foreign regulations areChinese thoughtThe area under the rule of the Emperor is Kanai, and the outside is Kakai, and Kakai is the neighboring country (Tang), Bankuk (Silla, Bohai), and Yugu (Hair person,Hayato) Was classified. by this,Nara periodSince then, Japan has pursued a foreign policy that calls for Korean tribute to the Korean Peninsula. Silla, which unified the Korean Peninsula, confronted Japan in hopes of an equal relationship, and Bohai regarded Japan as a trading partner rather than a suzerain country in a booklet after the relationship with Tang improved. [33] .

Due to the tension between Silla and Japan, the envoy was unable to pass through the Korean coast, but the Shilla princes paid tribute to the Emperor. [34] .. It was reported to the court that 300 Japanese warships, which did not take the life of the court, suddenly attacked Silla and were defeated. The Imperial Court defends the coast of the Sea of ​​JapanTokaido,HigashisendoToModeratorAnd prepared for war [† 7] .. Then in KyushusmallpoxBecause of the spread ofEastern countryfromGuardAbolishing the conscription of Iki and TsushimaChikushi countryDecided to be with [36] .. Tang, who has been defeated by Silla, plans a Silla attack and seeks assistance from Japan. However, Japan was right after Emperor Tenchi collapsed at that time, and he was exempted from sending troops to the messenger of Tang by offering armor and other equipment. Tang Silla attacks in TibetTibetWas canceled due to an attack on the western territory. Due to the retreat of the Tang threat, Japan and Silla moved from a war system to peacetime and proceeded with centralization. [37] .

Imperial Court and Silla/Koryo

Japan and Silla, which have been organized as a unified nation, confront each other over their respective positions. The envoy, Tang, fought with Silla over diplomacy.Kiyokawa FujiwaraAt the time of the Tang Dynasty ambassadorXuanzongThe first eastern side of TibetTibet, The second is Japan, the western one is Silla, the second isIslamic EmpirePoint toBig eaterMet. DeputyOtomo KomaroHowever, Silla protested that Japan was a tribute country to Japan but was inferior to Japan, and the Tang general changed Japan to the first seat because there was no sign that Komaro was pulling in at all. The following year,Mamoru OnodaWas dispatched as an envoy to Silla, but returned to Japan without fulfilling his mission because of Silla's response. [25] .

In TangAnshi no RanWhen the information that theMaru Fujiwara TheDazaifuOrder the strengthening of defense in each country. Silla Ambassador was dispatched to Dazaifu when he visited JapanFujiwara morning huntWhen he cross-examined Sadamaki, SadamakiNational bookIt turned out that he was a junior official on the 17th and 11th floors without bringing it.Japan turned away Sadamaki as unworthy of hospitality, and the momentum for the Silla expedition increased, disrespecting Silla's diplomacy.The imperial courtMusashi country-Mino countryAcquire the Silla language to 20 boys from both countries and the Tokaido,Nankaido,SaikaidoSet up a moderator [38] . AndShilla conquest planIs set up, but laterEmperor KokenAnd the leader of the expedition, Nakamaru, was not executed due to a discord [39] . AndKisitsuAt the end of the period, Japan stopped sending Silla and Japan cut off diplomatic relations with Silla. The diplomatic entrustment also stopped the management trade due to the loss of diplomatic relations, which increased private trade between Japan and Silla. [25] [40] .

9st centuryIn the middle of the year, Silla's internal turmoil caused political instability. With loose control, the Silla people pirated and attacked the coast in Kyushu and Tsushima,Shilla's IntroAs a result, Japan was forced to take measures. The Imperial Court, which allowed Silla merchants to enter and trade after the break, also learned of the existence of Silla people, who used trade as an excuse to observe the political situation in Japan.Fujiwara MamoruBanned non-merchant Silla people from entering the country [41] .. At this time in JapanOtenmon strangeIs happening, and the tendency to reject Silla was created because of external tensions such as illness at the same time as the administration's domestic conflict. Three countries stand side by side on the Korean Peninsula due to the weakening of SillaAfter the Three Kingdoms periodAnd the confusion continued [42] .

After Silla disappeared from the latter three nations,GoryeoUnifies the peninsula, but is a northern raceKhitan,FriThe invasion of and the civil war of Australians in various places continued. Minamiharafu of Koryo drifted ashore in Tsushima, and then Gimkaifu arrived in Dazaifu. The Koma ambassador arrived in Japan and asked for diplomatic relations, but the court ruled that it would not accept anything but tribute. Because of this,JurchenAttacked the coast of Japan,Chotoku no Shiki,Sword's entranceHappened [43] .. KoryoBoth groupsA literary person who has been favored by the system and a disdained samurai conflict, and the samurai takes the lead in politics on behalf of the kingTakeshin administrationIs established. The state in which the Goryeo royal family lost power due to the Samurai administration continued until the attack on the Empire of Mongolia (Later) [44] .. Amid political instability, Koryo incorporated Buddhism into its national system, exempting Buddhist monks and temples from taxes and military service. [45] .

Economic side

Obtaining bronze and iron

The main purpose of the Yayoi people visiting the Korean Peninsula was bronze and iron. Yayoi-style pottery is also found in 45% of the Korean peninsula's archaeological sites. As iron ore was produced, there was a trade in iron. Of Wei ZhijinjinOne countryTo be the capital ofHara Tsuji RuinsHas an artificial port and was built as a trading base with the continent and the southern peninsula [46] .. The pottery, bronze ware, and iron ware are produced in Raku-gun, which was built by Han, and Japanese (Japanese people) as well as Koreans visited and carried them to Iki, Tsushima, and northern Kyushu. "Wei Zhi" Bentanden contains visitors from Japan who asked for iron in Benhan.Kanji』'S geography is "There is a sea wave Japanese people" [47] [48] .Copper mirrorTo obtain continental products such as, iron products, glass beads, the Japanese side produces salt and rice andRaw mouth(Slave) sent. Gaya has a description in Wei Zhi that a Japanese man was visiting to obtain iron. [49] .. Before the unification by the Yamato kingship, the Yamadai country, the northern Kyushu country and the Ito country, and the Seto Inland SeaKibiTraded with the Korean Peninsula. Wakoku exported silk products such as Wakishi and cotton and grain from northern Kyushu. "Weishi" has a description that Ikijima and Tsushima carried out Ichiho (grain trade) in the north and south. [50] .

The Three Kingdoms Period, Silla

It is said that Wakoku was given by Baekje among the three countriesSeven swords TheIshigami ShrineExtant. Crafts and technicians were given from the Korean Peninsula, and soldiers, weapons, grains, and textiles were given from Wakoku. I came to the Japanese archipelago from the Korean PeninsulaMigrantThere was also a craftsman in the 4th century, obi belt type armor was made, and in the latter half of the 4th century, harnesses were made, and farm tools and tools were imported. [50] .

Due to the unification of Japan by the Yamato kingship and the unification of Silla with Korea, Japan and Silla managed and traded with Silla and Silla. This was due to diplomatic tensions, and as the mission was delayed, the Silla sea commerce was active. When the political situation in Tang became unstable due to the turmoil in Anshi, trade on the sea increased over land, and Japan, Silla, Tang, and Islamic merchants on the coast of China sailed. The contribution of Silla to the security of the seaZhang Baowas. Zhang Ho Sao cracked down on the pirate slave trade,WandoTrade in Japan, Silla and Tang. Entering China through the Silla MerchantPersian,TianzhuProducts such as were brought to Japan. According to the Ritsuryo Act, the right to purchase is decided in the order of the court, the boss, and the aristocrats, and in order for the aristocrats to purchase Silla's imported goods, it is necessary to apply for it in the form of (Baishiragi Monogage).Shosoin documentRemains as. Japanese exports include cotton and silk, and Silla exportsGinseng, Tableware made of alloy called Sawari, pigments, gold, spices, etc. [51] .. Of a monk who was studying abroad as a member of the last envoyYen RenReturned from Tang with the help of Zhang Ho Sao and Silla merchants. Enjin's TravelsEntry to the pilgrimage], the security deterioratesChang'anLife in China, interaction with Tang and Silla people, and voyage of Silla merchants [52] .

Mining

in JapanUnwritten silver coins,Tomimoto SenThe casting of coins such asWado KaiIt is said that Issuing Wado KaikanFormer EmperorIn the age ofMusashi countryThis was triggered by the discovery and donation of a high-purity natural copper called Nichia Kagane in Chichibu-gun. To commemorate thisWadoWas issued and Wado Kaikan was issued. [53] ..One of the three people who contributed to the discovery of this natural copper was a migrant.Gold was placed in fifth place in 702, but is believed to be due to the discovery of Wado. [54] .

Bohai/Tora

In the Bohai Sea, Japanese silk fabrics were exported, while from the Bohai Sea, tigers and worms, which were prized among nobles, were imported. In Japan, the reimbursement for Bohai became a financial burden, and the period of tribute was changed to once every 12 years. Tatara in Jeju Island also paid a tribute to Wakoku [32] .

Cultural aspect

Wooden stripAnalysis of Japan漢字It is recognized that the visitor was involved in the start of use. Kanji as a linguistic expression in the Japanese archipelagoGold stoneThere,Iron sword from the Inariyama TumulusThe kanji of "" have the same usage as the wooden tablets of the Korean Peninsula. In the Asuka era, there is a Kanji notation in the Korean peninsula, which is used as a method of reading aloud in addition to Kure and Han. The Old Korean is a reading of the ancient Korean peninsula system,Old soundDerived from. In this way, trial and error was performed to express Japanese, which has a different structure from Chinese, in Kanji. Until the 7th century, the kanji was transmitted to the Japanese archipelago through the Korean Peninsula, and it wasn't until the 8th century when the envoy of Tang Dynasty began to directly adopt the Chinese kanji usage that the Tang sound was introduced as a new reading method. [55] [56] .

Calendar/Science

The oldest record of the calendar being transmitted to the Japanese archipelago isEmperor KinmeiIn Baekje in 14 (553)Calendar doctorIt is a description of "Nihon Shoki" and "Kinmei" that Dr. Jun Rekimoto came to Japan in 554 to request the replacement of [57] ..Baekje monkSpectacleIs a calendar book, astronomical geography book,Skeleton bookBringsYang Hu Yu ChenBecame a master of [58] .

Confucianism/Buddhism

Buddhism was introduced mainly from Baekje. BaekjeStupaBesides the monks,Temple teacher. PainterAnd brought engineers. BaekjeHoly Ming KingSent Buddha statues, Buddhist paintings, sutras, etc. to Emperor Kinmei, and Koguryo sent monks. From Baekje to Wakokulawyer,Buddhist craftsmanShilla also donated a chord and a Buddha image to Wakoku. In this way, the culture of Mikuni is JapaneseAsuka cultureInfluenced [59] .. For the monks who entered the morning, from BaekjeSpectacleFrom KoguryoCloudinessAndPrince YasadoBecame a teacherLoveWore [23] .. Some monks traveled from Japan to the Korean Peninsula and became the first nun in Japan after being warned at Baekje.Good faithThere are also Keiji who trained in Goguryeo. Goryeo had a national business of collecting and printing Buddhist texts, and Goryeo's delicate Buddhist texts became famous. [45] .

Emperor OshinOf the doctor who was invited from Baekje at the timeWang JinBut one of the four books in Confucianism "ArgumentThere is a tradition that it brought ". As a visitor from BaekjeKing TongjiAlso contributed to the spread of Confucianism. Those who have a “king” as their surname, such as Wang Tongji and Wang Jin, may be Baekjes who have Chinese origin. [60] .

Technology/Crafts

In the southeast of the Korean PeninsulaYayoi earthenwareHas been discovered, and it is said that there was a base for Yayoi people connecting Rakunami-gun and northern Kyushu. [61] .. PotterySue ware, Metalworking techniques such as metalworking and ironmaking, and techniques such as kamad were introduced to the Japanese archipelago in the 5th century and spread rapidly. In the Sakae River of Korea, there are tumuli such as the front and rear burial mounds, and in Japan there are burial mounds of the Korean Peninsula. [62] .. It is the first Buddhist temple in JapanAsuka TempleIn the construction of, Baekje and Koguryo supported. In construction,SogaOf the technicians underDong Han. etc. participated, and Koguryo sent gold to the main Buddhist statue. [63] .. The discovery of Japanese bronze ware was discovered in the 3rd-4th century BC, and the forged ironware was found in the 3rd century BC, and the materials originally obtained from the Korean Peninsula were reprocessed. Ironmaking from iron ore begins6st centuryIn the latter half, the start of copper production from copper ore7st centuryConsists of [64] .. Crafts that show interchange have been found in the burial mounds of the Japan and the morning and the remains of the trading area.Earthenware,,and so on [65] .

Literature/Entertainment

Wong Jin, along with "Lonji", is a long poem in Chinese literature.Thousand CharactersThere is also a legend that it brought ". Since the establishment of "Senjibun" was established in the 6th century, it is said that a visitor from Baekje added to the story of Wang Jin. [60] .. In the poet of the visitor,ManyoshuThe song was recorded inTanabe Fukumaro,Yukibun SennaThere are It was an important element of exchange in diplomacy with ChinaChinese poetryIt was also used in diplomatic relations between Japan and North Korea, and was used to sing Chinese poetry when hosting missions such as Silla and Bohai. Hakai, who had many messengers, chose a messenger with a poetry andJihei Arahara,Michio Shinohara,KinohaseThere was also a scene where they participated in the chorus and competed [66] .. From BaekjeMimayuki(Masashi)'s arrival in the morningComfortWas introduced, and it developed as a foreign entertainment [67] .

Master

In the 13th century, KoryoMongolian Empire(Lateryuan)ofKubiraiAfter being appointed to Japan, he urged Japan to submit to the Mongolian Empire. JapaneseKamakura ShogunateRefused to do so, and Koryo proposed to invade Japan and attacked Japan with the former army, but it ended in failure.

Mongolian Empire Gory Attack, Sanbetsu to Request Japan

The Mongolian empire has six timesMongolian invasion of GoryeoSubmitted to Koryo. 『Koma HistoryAnd 'MetahistoryAccording to ", Korean government officials and laterLoyal kingBecomeWang ShiziJapan attack was decided because of the request of [† 8] [† 9] .. The King of Korea has a policy of actively cooperating in the expedition of Mongolia when the kingship is restored by the Mongolian army, and it is said that he advised the attack on Japan. When Koryo became a member of the Mongolian empire, it was a military organization founded during the period of the Samurai government.SanbetsuRaised up against Mongolia and the King of Korea and called for relief from Japan based in Tatara. The Kamakura Shogunate did not respond to the request from Sanbetsusho, and Sanbetsusho was defeated and the entire Korean Peninsula was put under the influence of Mongolia. Original ancestorKubiraiSoftens the policy of Goryeo, and the Goryeo army decides to attack Japan with the former army [69] [70] [71] .

Original attack on Japan (Bunaga, Koan)

Originally submitted to Korea, he was in charge of diplomatic negotiations, such as sending the original national books to Japan. The Kamakura Shogunate, which received the national book from the messenger of Koryo, decides not to send a reply. 18 years oldHojo TokuneBecame the shogunate, but the shogunate proceeded with countermeasures against the original attack without returning a reply to the visit of a more rigorous messenger, and the former army attacked. In addition to the KoreansSouth Song peopleIt has a multi-ethnic composition that includesHakataFought against the Kamakura Shogunate army centered around the Kyushu family. The ex-military aggression was carried out twice, but both times, due to Japanese resistance, the landing in Kyushu was blocked, and it was destroyed by a seasonal storm. The former Korean army soldiers who became POWs of JapanJapan Song TradingThe South Song people who had exchanges with each other were given priority in life, but the Mongolians, the Koreans, and the Masamune were entrusted to each family member until their disposal was decided. [72] .. Former prisoners of the Koryo army were enslaved, and those with abilities were military engineers andGeneral juvenileSome of them became millionaires by being adopted in the writing business of. Eleven years after the role of Hiroyasu, a Korean envoy came and sent a national book to thank the Korean prisoners for living in Japan. [73] .

Pirates

JapaneseNorthern and Northern DynastiesからMuromachi Period, From Korea's Koryo to the Joseon DynastyPiratesThe maritime powers calledPirateAnd smuggled. The 14th- and 15th-century Japanese wisdom is also called the early Japanese wisdom. The reasons for the stigma include the deterioration of public security and trade policies in each country. After the fall of the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan,Onin's rebellionThe political situation was unstable, and in Korea, the country was exhausted due to the occupation of the former army. Therefore, the security of the sea area could not be maintained in both countries. Founded in China after the originalLight Maritime policyBy doing so, coastal merchants were tampering with smuggling and piracy. Japanese people, Koreans, and later Chinese and Portuguese were mixed in the 16th century. [74] .

The word "wago" was originally from Koguryo.Kota monumentSeen in. The same example as the Japanese medieval Japanese ghost was from the original era,Fujiwara TeikeIsTomorrow"so,Matsuura PartyIs worried about buying a grudge for Koryo because he attacked Koryo. In "Koryo History",Chungding KingThere is a record that the raid of Yago began in the age ofTurbulenceIt was the time when was happening. The Gorai invades Goseong, Bamboo Forest, Geoje, Aiura, etc., and is intercepted by Koryo, which marks the beginning of the "Wakko's invasion". The bases of the first half of the year were the Tsushima, Iki,(I.e.,Jeju,Zhoushan IslandsIn some cases, people in the land where they attacked were abducted and forced to become subordinates. [74] .. The 14th-century Wago is aiming for essential items such as rice grains, and gradually becomes large-scale capital of Goryeo.KaikyoI approached the neighborhood. It has also been pointed out that the activity of Japanese ghosts has become more active due to the attempted murder. In Koryo, the government's warehouse was moved inland to prevent the looting of Yago, and the coasts of Jeolla-do and Yangguro-do became unfit for living. When the coast was devastated and the population declined, Wakae invaded further inland by cavalry, and some water gauges and talents discriminated against in Goryeo also participated in Wakae. [75] .

Japan and Koryo's measures

Muromachi ShogunateWill cooperate with Goryeo in anti-Japanese measures. Koma's missionGold dragon [ Avoid ambiguity ] Was dispatched and negotiations were held with the Muromachi Shogunate for measures against Yago.Kyushu questionWas dispatched asSadayo ImagawaIs KoryoChung Yume ZhouIn cooperation withMr. OuchiWith them, I defeated Yago. The repatriation of the Koreans who were taken as prisoners of Yago's war was also carried out, and the communication between Korai and Mr. Tsushima was started. [76] .. In the later Joseon dynasty, Koryo and the Muromachi Shogunate's ambassadors and replies to national booksKorean communication ambassadorStarted as. Of Koryo, who made her name in the battle with YagoLee SeijiLater founded the Korean dynasty (Mr. Lee, Mr. Lee).

Korean Dynasty (Mr. Lee)

Goryeo broke out of its former decline and ruler Li SeijiRed Army, Emerged with great achievements in the battle against the former army and Yago. Koma was built in the place of the former Chinese dynastyLightConflict with Lee, but Lee Seung-kyuk turned back after being ordered to advance to MingJoseon Dynasty(Mr. Lee, Lee Dynasty) was founded. Since the founding of the country, Lee Dynasty has a close relationship with Ming, and the national name of “Korean” has been given to him by Ming. Lee DynastyConfucianism OfZhu ZixueAnd became a country that was faithful to Ming, the center of the Chinese regime, with a policy of strictly adhering to the Chinese regime. [77] .. The Korean messenger from Lee Dynasty was sent to the shogun of the Muromachi Shogunate. The Emperor, while on top of the shogun, did not carry out national politics, and the Li Dynasty interpreted that the shogun had the actual power.

Japan and Lee Dynasty's measures against Japan

Lee Dynasty ordered the subjugation of Iki and Tsushima as a measure against Yago,1396 attackI went. Lee Dynasty asked the Muromachi Shogunate to ban Wajira, and Ming made the same request from China. At the request of the Muromachi Shogunate,Yoshimitsu AshikagaSuppresses Yago. Yoshimitsu dispatches an ambassador to Korea, which is used as a management trade. Yi Dynasty's softening measures against Yagoe were effective, changing from piracy to trade and increasing the number of people traveling to Korea, but at the same time, the financial burden of Yi Dynasty increased (Later) [78] .. A messenger who demands measures against Japanese ghosts also visited from Ming, and the third general of the Muromachi ShogunateYoshimitsu AshikagaHas a close relationship with Korea and a closed relationship with Ming.

Tsushima is the base of Yago, but Mr. Mune cooperated with Lee Dynasty to deal with Hakata. Lee Dynasty sent an envoy to Mr. Soh to seek crackdown on Japanese stowaways. Tsushima will send information about Yago to Li Dynasty for the benefit of trade and defense of his country. Tsushima utilizes Iki, Hakata,Akamaseki, Hizen became the source of information [79] .

Japanese-style building

On the Korean Peninsula, Lee Dynasty attacks Tsushima, which was the base of Yago, with Oei's outer corps.Japanese-style buildingWas built. The Wakan was a guesthouse for Japanese people (Wajin), and also served as a residence for Japanese people visiting by trade and for the purpose of calming the activities of the Wakai into trade. It was called that Mr. Lee made a sloppy measure against Japan and increased the number of Japanese people who surrendered and settled. In this way, the number of Japanese people who interact with Lee Dynasty in various roles has increased. There were some Korean officials who were allowed to trade, and there were some Japanese messenger Yasushi who settled in the port and rode as a Japanese messenger. The merchantKo interestCalled the merchant shipKo interest boatWas called. As Ming refused to authorize trade with Japan under the sea ban policy, the number of Kohei people suddenly increased, and Lee Dynasty mandated travel permits for Tsushima, Iki and Kyushu daimyo. Lee DynastyTsushima countryI was planning to send an embassy for the return of a Japanese living person who has exceeded the period of stay in Japan, but postponed the dispatch of the embassy due to the sudden death of the island owner [80] .. At the end of the 15th century, there were nearly 3000 Hijiang Yai people, and the riot of Hijiang Yai people involved Tsushima as well.Miura RebellionBecame. After the Miura Rebellion, the Japanese residence in Miura was banned and Lee Dynasty became a military institution.Tsukasa BibeBecame a catalyst to install. Due to the influence of Japan's ghost, diplomatic relations were often cut off,Ding unrestricted article,Dating rulesTrade resumes. The port of entry was limited to Busanpo and continued until Hideyoshi sent out Koreans. [81] .

Tsushima

Tsushima has been trading since ancient times, taking advantage of its location between the Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula. The lack of arable land also heightened the need for trade. Of the King of Korea世宗Attacked Tsushima, which was the base of Japan's ghost, and defended Tsushima.SosadamoriWas countered by a counterattack by. thisOei's outer corpseCall (Kiyo Tosei) [82] .. The Muromachi Shogunate sent as a messenger to Sejong to confirm Lee’s policy, and Lee’s messengerSong NozomiThe 4th generalYoshikazu AshikagaI sent it to. Song Noriaki explained that the cause of the corpse is the Japanese corpse, and gained the understanding of Yoshimune. Later between Sosadamori and Lee DynastyKayoshi TreatyWith the signing of the (Kanpai agreement) and the commencement of communication, Mr. Mune was actively traded with the approval of 50 cases a year. In addition, Mr. Mu sends a messenger at a special timeCourierWas also recognized. Chinese porcelain is an important commodity in medieval trade, and Tsushima from the 14th century onwardsKoryo celadonA lot of pottery from the Korean peninsula including [83] .. Later, in the days of Hideyoshi Toyotomi and Ieyasu Tokugawa, Tsushima became in charge of diplomacy with Lee Dynasty. [84] [85] .

Economic side

Japanese Bank

Japan's output of silver and gold will increase sharply from the latter half of the Middle Ages. The trigger was a technique from the Korean Peninsula. Hakata MerchantShinya KamiyaFrom the Korean PeninsulaIwami GinzanBring me toAshbuki methodThe technology was transmitted [86] .. Iwami Ginzan, a vein from ancient times, was reopened, and ores were transported to Hakata and the Korean Peninsula via Tsushima and Iki. When the Ashbuki method was transmitted to various places, the amount of silver produced increased, and silver was distributed to Kinai, Kyushu, and trading ports. [87] .. At that time, silver was an international currency, and Japanese silver was also called as an important export product of Japan-North Korea trade. [88] .

Nichirei Trade/Japan-North Korea Trade

Although there was no diplomatic relations with Japan, the trade started in the 11th century, with the largest number of people in Tsushima, as well as Chikuzen and Satsuma. Japan exports pearls, swords, mercury, citrus, etc.Tribute shipIt was also called and traveled once a year. Trade is temporarily interrupted by the spirit [89] .

At Lee Dynasty, the Japanese who were allowed to trade after managing foreign trade after OneiRecipientWas called. Japanese-American trade can be broadly divided into three categories: (1) advancement and reward of envoys, which are official exchanges, (2) public trade using official prices by bureaucrats, and (3) private trade using market prices between merchants. There are types. Most of the transaction amount was (3) and (2) [90] .. For (1) and (2)Kyushu question-Guardian-ChineseSuch official diplomacy and public trade exchanges were allowed, and official envoys used ships. In (3), there were many merchants called Kohei Yajin, and the smaller ones exchanged seafood and salt from Tsushima for grains to obtain food. Large-scale Kohei people traded along the route connecting Korea, Tsushima, Chikuzen, and Hizen, like the Australians. [91] .. Where Japan can enter the port太宗In the age ofToyamauraとNojiuraso,世宗In the age ofShiouraJoin(I.e.Was also called. Due to the influence of Miura's turmoil and Wago, the port of call will eventually be Busanpo [92] .

Since the production of Japanese money increased, Japanese exports were silver and Korean exports were cotton cloth. Cotton cloth has spread to Japan as sailcloth and clothing for sailboats. [88] [93] .. The most active trader was Tsunemune's sect, and in other areas, 1 years were accepted per year, while annual vessels were 2-50 times per year. Exports from Korea are distributed in Japan from Hakata, and there were many trades between Japan and North Korea between Tsushima and Hakata. [94] .. Ouchi and KyushuShibukawa, HizenMr. Munakata, Of HigoKikuchiOf SatsumaShimazuAnd so on. The Japan-North Korea trade resumed in the middle of the 15th century after a temporary interruption, but this was for the purpose of controlling the smuggling by Lee Dynasty. [81] .

Chinese medieval porcelain was distributed in large quantities in Middle East Asia, while Korean celadon was exported from the Korean Peninsula. In addition to Tsushima, which is close to the Korean Peninsula, Koryo CeladonMr. AndoWas governed byXNUMX MinatoBut have been discovered [95] .

Impostor

A fake is a fake foreign envoy misrepresenting the name. Go to the Korean Peninsula in the Middle AgesImpostorTherefore, the Korean side called the impostor an interim fraudster or a middleman. After Onei's foreign account, it was necessary to be an official ambassador to trade with Lee Dynasty, and many people visited Lee Dynasty under the name of the ambassador. The patterns of misuse include (1) those who borrow the names of passers-by, (2) those who use the names of passers without permission, (3) those who misrepresent the names of real influential people, and (4) fictitious ones. It is divided into those who misrepresent the names of influential persons and (5) those who misrepresent the fictitious envoys of the state. Impostors misrepresented include the Muromachi Shogunate ambassador, Tsushima sect ambassador, daimyo ambassador, and Ryukyu Kingdom ambassador. [78] .. The Ryukyu Kingdom's false use was centered on Tsushima and Hakata merchants, and it occurred when Ryukyu began entrusting Japanese merchants and monks to communicate with Lee Dynasty. [96] .. 8th GeneralYoshimasa AshikagaTo the messenger ofIki Chishima KingHave been accompanied by a person called, but there is also a theory that the origin of the race is not certain, and that it is a fake [78] [97] .. Not an impostor, but an official diplomatic officer forged a diplomatic document, which later became an incident. [98] .

Ryukyu Kingdom and Japan-North Korea trade

Ryukyu KingdomIn addition to the tribute to the morning, I am doing relay trade with Japan and Southeast Asia,Nakayama King OfInsightSent an envoy to communicate with the Korean Peninsula. Ryukyu also paid tribute to Koryo, referring to its relationship with Japan. Ryukyu on the Korean sideFour quartersAlthough it was regarded as one of the above, it became a formally equal relationship when it came to Lee Dynasty. Ryukyu joined forces with Tsushima and Hakata to join the trade route between Japan and North Korea. After the Ryukyu ship was attacked by Tsushima's Haeko, the voyage to Korea was stopped. And for security,VigilanceI was hired as and resumed communication. The shipowner at the time of resumption was also called Tsushima's bandit neck. Ryukyu also outsources communication to the Hakata merchants.DoanYara visited the Li Dynasty as a Ryukyu messenger. One of the purposes of Ryukyu's Korean communication is "Okura Sutra", which was obtained as a gift from the Li Dynasty. For more information on the Ryukyu and Li Dynasty exchanges, please readKorean dynasty memoirs(Li Cho Jinroku)” has many articles [99] .

Cultural aspect

Zhu Zixue

The Li Dynasty became a country that emphasized Confucianism more than Ming, with emphasis on Zhuzi studies, and the idea of ​​the Hua Dynasty Order influenced the foreign policy of Li Dynasty. Li Dynasty defined his country as a feudal lord under the world view centered on Ming, and while belonging to Ming, the neighboring countries of Meshin, Japan, and Ryukyu were treated as equals, and they formed an equal relationship. Is [100] .

Establishment of diplomatic documents

A diploma was also written in Japan and North Korea when the messenger started. On the Korean side,Shin Unshuof"Haitian countries, Etc. was written and became basic information for Japan and the Ryukyu Kingdom. On the Japanese side,Zuiho ZhouhoBut"Good neighbor national treasure], became Japan's first cohesive diplomatic document [101] .

Literature and calligraphy

The habit of using Chinese poetry in diplomacy continued in the Middle Ages, and poetry was sometimes used in negotiations, and diplomats were required to have the ability to write poetry. Muneaki Souki's "Koshodou Nihon Gokuroku" also describes many Japanese poems of Chinese poetry. The opponent of Soki Akira is a monk, and he also gives poems to the general public. The Japanese envoy who went to Korea is "Korean dynasty memoirs], there is a record that Ryohei Mukai gave poems to Sejong [102] .

After the Muromachi period, Chinese poems and ink paintings were integrated into the hanging scrolls, but they were used for the exchange between Japan and North Korea. The poetry axis is a composition with ink painting on the bottom and poetry on the top.Sesshu"Sansuizu" has praise with Korean officials [103] .

AikokujiOf the monkWeekly sentenceIt was pointed out that Korean ink paintings may have influenced the style of his work, as he participated in a Japanese mission to Lee Dynasty and stayed in Korea for up to four months. There is no record of interest in Korean paintings, and the fact that there are few paintings produced at that time on the Korean side is a vague theory that lacks rigorous verification. [104] .

Outflow of cultural properties

In Koryo, the Buddhist forces expanded their private land and fell into financial difficulties. Later in the Li Dynasty, Buddhism was rejected as Suzaku became popular. In Japan, Zen Buddhism was prosperous as it was protected by the shogunate, so Buddhist cultural assets such as sutras and Buddhist tools were released to Japan. Above allKoryo Hachiman Okura SutraWas required by various Japanese powers as a good book with few mistakes, and was also a major objective of Korean communication. Woodcut printing "Okura Sutra" and belfry were imported in large quantities to Japan because they were traded at high prices.


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